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第四章 基因的结构与功能 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第四章 基因的结构与功能. 基因是一个特定的 DNA 或 RNA 片段,但并非一段 DNA 或 RNA 都是基因。. 第一节 基因的概念. 一、基因概念的发展 (一)遗传“因子”:孟德尔认为,生物性状的遗传由遗传因子所控制,性状本身不遗传。 (二)染色体是基因的载体:摩尔根实验证明基因位于染色体上,并呈直线排列,提出了遗传学是连锁交换规律,建立了遗传的染色体学说,为细胞遗传学奠定了重要基础。并由此提出基因既是一个功能单位,是一个突变单位,也是一个交换单位的“三位一体”概念。 ∴  经典遗传学认为:基因是一个最小的单位,不能分割;既是结构单位,又是功能单位。.

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第四章 基因的结构与功能

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  • DNARNADNARNA


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DNA1928GriffithDNAAveryDNA

DNA

  • 2040BeadleTatum

  • 1953WatsonCrickDNADNA


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  • 1957Crick61DNA

  • 1957BenzerT4cistor)DNA


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  • DNA---

    DNA


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  • 1961JacobMonodoperon theory)


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  • 2050DNA5070


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  • structural gene)(regulatory gene):

  • RNArRNArDNARNAtRNAtDNA rRNA rRNAtRNA tRNA

  • promotor0(operator):


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DNA

  • 500-6000DNADNA

  • RNADNA


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  • wa,wX

    P wa wa wY

    F1 wa w wa Y(

    F2 wa wa wa w wa Y wY

wa w F2F21/1000


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  • P wa+/ wa+ +w/ Y

    F1 wa+/ +w wa+/ Y

    wa+ +w wa w ++ wa+ Y

    F2 ++/ wa+ ++ /Y


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  • cis-trans position effect)

  • wa+/ +wtrans) wa w /++cis)


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  • pseudoallele)


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  • 1

    2

    3

    P101

  • BenzerT4rP1014-1


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  • Benzer

    rrxryr+rxryr+ E.coli BBK() r+ryrxr+r+r+r+r+rxry


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  • rxryr+r+ r+r+ 2


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  • recombination test) 0.001


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  • complementation) rK()


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  • rr Ar Br Ar,rBr.


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  • r A,r B,r Ar B,K()

  • : r Ar B,,


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: A+ B

A B+

: A+ B

A B+


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:

+ +/- - + -/- +


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  • muton)(roecon)


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  • 1


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2


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  • 1

    2

    3


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  • Benzerrr

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    a b c

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  • P107


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  • 1977ChambonBergetspacer sequence)split genemRNADNADNAmRNAexonextron)mRNADNA(intron)


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  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4


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  • 1978Sarger X174DNA614

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  • 4

  • 5

  • DNAtrpDtrpEtrpEtrpD


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  • Garrod

    GarrodPKU


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  • 34

  • aa(

  • CO2+H2O

pp

cc


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  • Garrod

  • BeadleTatum19411958


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a b c d

A B C D

1 2 3 4 5

a b


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A B C D E G

1 + +

2 + + +

3 +

4 + + + +

5 + + + + +

: 5 4 2 1 3

: E A C B D G


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: aa aa aa

I

II

III

: arg1 arg2 arg3

1 2 3

aa aa aa


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(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)RNA


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  • HbA

  • HbS


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  • HbA HbA HbA

  • HbS HbS HbS

  • HbA HbSHbAHbSHbA


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  • HbA422 141146IngramHbAHbS6HbAHbS HbAHbS


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