20 1 structural genomics determines the dna sequences of entire genomes
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20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes. The ultimate goal of genomic research: determining the ordered nucleotide sequences of entire genomes of organisms

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20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes

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20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes

  • The ultimate goal of genomic research: determining the ordered nucleotide sequences of entire genomes of organisms

  • Genetic maps: (linkage map) approximate locations of genes, relative to the location of other genes, based on the rates of recombination


20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes

Physical map: based on the direct analysis of DNA, places genes in relation to distances measured in bp, kbp, and mbp


20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes

  • Sequencing an entire genome:

    • The human genome project

    • Map-based sequencing: relies on detailed genetic and physical maps to align sequenced fragments


Concept Check 1

A contig is:

  • a set of molecular markers used in genetic mapping

  • a set of overlapping fragments that form a continuous stretch of DNA

  • a set of fragments generated by a restriction enzyme

  • a small DNA fragment used in sequencing


Concept Check 1

A contig is:

  • a set of molecular markers used in genetic mapping

  • a set of overlapping fragments that form a continuous stretch of DNA

  • a set of fragments generated by a restriction enzyme

  • a small DNA fragment used in sequencing


20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes

  • Whole-genome shotgun sequencing:

    Small-insert clones are prepared directly from genomic DNA and sequenced in a highly automated way.


20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes

  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms:

    • A site in the genome where individual members of a species differ in a single base pair

    • Haplotype: the specific set of SNPs and other genetic variants observed on a chromosome

    • tagSNPs


20.1 Structural Genomics Determines the DNA Sequences of Entire Genomes

  • Copy-number variations

    • The number of copies of DNA sequences varies from people to people.

  • Expressed-Sequence Tags (ESTs)

    • Markers associated with DNA sequences that are expressed as RNA

  • Bioinformatics:

    • Molecular Biology + Computer Science


20.2 Functional Genomics Determines the Functions of Genes by Using Genomic-Based Approaches

  • Functional genomics

    • characterizes what the sequences do

  • Transcriptome: all the RNA molecules transcribed from a genome

  • Proteome: all the proteins encoded by the genome


Predicting Function from Sequence

  • Homologous

    • Genes that are evolutionarily related

    • Orthologs

      • Homologous genes in different species that evolved from the same gene in a common ancestor

    • Paralogs

      • Homologous genes arising by duplication of a single gene in the same organism


Concept Check 3

What is the difference between orthologs and paralogs?

  • Orthologs are homologous sequences; paralogs are analogous sequences.

  • Orthologs are more similar than paralogs.

  • Orthologs are in the same organism; paralogs are in different organisms.

  • Orthologs are in different organisms; paralogs are in the same organism.


Concept Check 3

What is the difference between orthologs and paralogs?

  • Orthologs are homologous sequences; paralogs are analogous sequences.

  • Orthologs are more similar than paralogs.

  • Orthologs are in the same organism; paralogs are in different organisms.

  • Orthologs are in different organisms; paralogs are in the same organism.


Gene Expression and Microarrays

  • Microarrays:

    • Nucleic acid hybridization: using a known DNA fragment as a probe to find a complementary sequence

  • Gene expression and reporter sequences:

    • Reporter sequence: encoding an easily observed product used to track the expression of a gene of interest


20.3 Comparative Genomics Studies How Genomes Evolve


Prokaryotic Genomes

  • Genome size

  • Number of genes

  • Horizontal gene transfer: exchanging genetic information from closely related or distantly related species over evolutionary time

  • Function of genes


Eukaryotic Genomes

  • Genome size

  • Number of genes

  • Multigene family: a group of evolutionarily related genes that arose through repeated evolution of an ancestral gene


20.4 Proteomics Analyzes the Complete Set of Proteins Found in a Cell

  • Determination of cellular proteins

    • Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    • Mass spectrometry


20.4 Proteomics Analyzes the Complete Set of Proteins Found in a Cell

  • Determination of cellular proteins

    • Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    • Mass spectrometry


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