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Private Sector Issues. Chapter One The History and Professionalism of Private Security. The History & Professionalization of Private Security. Goals The history of private security in Rome and England The history of private security in the U.S.

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Private sector issues

Private Sector Issues

Chapter One

The History and Professionalism of Private Security


The history professionalization of private security

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Goals

    • The history of private security in Rome and England

    • The history of private security in the U.S.

    • The movement to achieve professionalism in the private security industry

    • College programs in private security

    • Current ethical standards in the private security industry


The history professionalization of private security1

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Introduction

    • The word “Security” comes from the Latin word “securus” a compound word

      • “se” that means without

      • “cura” which means care

      • In English means “without care”, “free from care”, “free from danger” or “safe”

    • Read the remainder of the “Introduction” on page 2


The history professionalization of private security2

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Early Development of Private Security

    • Early “policing” had always been private matter

    • Citizens were responsible for protecting themselves and maintaining order in society

    • Modern style police departments did not appear until the 14th Century in France and not until the 19th Century in England


The history professionalization of private security3

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Early Development of Private Security

    • Throughout history people have banded together as a means to protect themselves

    • Milton says the first security officer may have been the nomadic shepherd:

      • As man domesticated animals he needed to protect them

      • One of the community would assume the task of guardian


The history professionalization of private security4

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Early Development of Private Security

    • As time evolved these people developed weapons, built barriers around dwellings and devised codes of conduct to protect themselves

    • The idea that people have the right to protect their property and themselves has been with us since the beginning of time

    • Later people would expect the government in the form of public police to fill this need


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in Ancient Rome

    • Private security was accomplished by the military and individual citizens

    • Violence was common in Rome and wealthy people used slaves or gladiators to defend themselves and their property

    • Citizens enforced the law by arresting and punishing offenders

    • Watches were formed to protect to town at night from enemies


The history professionalization of private security6

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in Ancient Rome

    • Roman citizens, made citizens arrests, served in local patrols, chained slaves to entrances, used body guards and enlisted animals (dogs and geese) as protectors

    • They also developed secure entrance doors, the Bard locking devise and the padlock

    • In the 5th Century, Rome created the first specialized investigative unit called “Questors” or “Trackers of Murder”


The history professionalization of private security7

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • The U.S. system of law and security was borrowed from the English

    • At first the “Feudal System” provided security for citizens

      • Law enforcement was the duty of all citizens

      • Some individuals were responsible for enforcing the law and keeping the peace


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • Prior to the formation of Police Departments there were individuals called “Thief Takers” which operated as kind of a private police during the 1600s to 1800s in England and France

    • In 1693 Parliament established a monetary reward for the capture of any highwayman

    • The “Thief Taker” was paid upon conviction and also awarded the thief’s possessions


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • This system was later extended to cover all crimes and “Thief Takers” were awarded rewards based on the seriousness of the offense (Bounty Hunters)

    • Sometimes criminals would agree to become “Thief Takers” as a way to receive a pardon from their crimes

    • Dangerous, retaliation, setups, and it was suspected in created more crime than it solved


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • Jonathan Wild was a criminal who worked the system by charged a fee for locating a persons stolen property

    • His “Thief Taking” actions led to the execution of many felons

    • His abuses of the system eventually caused his death


The history professionalization of private security11

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • Henry Fielding is credited with laying the foundations for the first modern private investigative agency

    • Fielding lived when crime was very high in London and was appointed as a magistrate

    • Fielding attempted to reduce crime in the area by working with local pawnshops, giving them descriptions of stolen items and asking them to report if these items made it to their shops


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • Through this Fielding created the first known official crime reports

    • He shared these reports with Constables and formed an investigative unit called “The Bow Street Runners” who operated as “Thief Takers” (not paid by public funds)

    • In 1763 Fielding’s “Bow Street Runners” were paid and the services were expanded to include patrol duites


The history professionalization of private security13

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • The Industrial Revolution created many new businesses and these businesses created their own rules, regulates and laws to be enforced by their own private security

    • The Industrial Revolution also created a change in the social patterns and the creation of a government sponsored security force was debated


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • Citizens opposed a police force for two reasons:

      • Citizens felt a police force would threaten their tradition of freedom

      • There was already private policing and didn’t want to spend any more public money


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in England

    • In 1828, Sir Robert Peel, drafted the first police bill, the Act for Improving the Police in and near the Metropolis (the Metropolitan Police Act) and it was passed by Parliament in 1829

    • Created the first large scale (1,000 men), uniformed, organized (along military lines), paid, civil police force in London

    • But private security was still used to provide protection and recover stolen property


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The Colonial Experience

      • The Colonists protected themselves with help from the militia

      • The Colonists recreated the English system of the Sheriff who was the most important law enforcement official in the county he enforced the law, collected taxes, supervised elections, but was not paid, but collected money from arrests


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The Colonial Experience

      • In cities the Town Marshal was the chief law enforcement official

      • He was aided by constables and night watchmen


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The Colonial Experience

      • 1631, Boston creates first Colonial Watch

      • 1658, New Amsterdam (NYC) replaces voluntary citizen patrol with 8 paid watchmen, described as idle, drunken, sleepers who never quelled any crime

      • When there was a problem the governor called in the Militia


The history professionalization of private security19

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • The first organized, paid, public police department was created in Boston 1838

      • NYC in 1845 and Philadelphia 1854

      • By 1861 Chicago, New Orleans, Cincinnati, Baltimore, Newark…had police departments

      • Constables and Sheriff were released from their patrol duties


The history professionalization of private security20

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • But these police departments did not live up to their expectations, corruption, complacency, confusion, sloth and brutality

      • They were overwhelmed and could not provide important services like detection and recovery of stolen goods

      • Led to the reliance on private policing and rewards (Thief Takers)


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • The modern U.S. private security industry owes much of its origins to Allan Pinkerton

        • Deputy Sheriff in Cook County, Illinois

        • First Detective Chicago Police Department

        • Special U.S. Mail Agent

        • Opened his own private detective agency in the early 1850s


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • The Pinkerton National Detective Agency

        • Trademark “The Eye that Never Sleeps” led to the label of “Private Eye” for Private investigators

        • Hired by railroads to patrol trains and set up security systems


The history professionalization of private security23

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • The Pinkerton National Detective Agency

        • Surveilled suspects, conducted undercover operations, examined handwriting samples, created centralized criminal identification records, networked with other law enforcement agencies, (Scotland Yard and the French Surete) hired female agents, created a code of ethics (no gratuities, separate from politics)


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • The Pinkerton Protective Patrol

        • Provided watchmen for businesses and private individuals

        • Protected President Lincoln

        • Gathered military intelligence

        • Participated in labor disputes


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • The Rocky Mountain Detective Agency

        • Apprehended bank and train robbers, cattle thieves, murders

      • Wells, Fargo and Co. & American Express Co.

        • Transported bank documents, gold, mail and hunted down thieves


The history professionalization of private security26

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • In 1865 the Railroad Police Acts were passed in many states which gave the railroad industry the right to establish a proprietary security force

      • Protected the tracks, trains, freight, stations, passengers…

      • In the early 1900s they numbered 14,000


The history professionalization of private security27

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • Following the railroads lead, other private businesses created their own proprietary security force

      • They were often used to break up strikes and these confrontations became violent

      • In 1892, 300 armed Pinkerton strikebreakers were defeated by strikers at the Carnegie Steelworks in Homestead, Pennsylvania


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • Investigations by Congress of these private investigative agencies led to many states passing laws which prevented armed mercenaries from crossing their borders

      • Businesses again established their own security forces


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • During the westward expansion there were few laws and fewer individuals to enforce the laws concerning gold mining, cattle theft…

      • To stop these crimes citizens formed vigilante groups and private businessmen created their own security forces


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • 1880s Wyoming Cattle Growers Association fought cattle rustling

      • New Mexico armed men formed to protect individual cattle herds

      • Texas employed Home Rangers authorized by the Governor to shoot on sight


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • In the east businesses began to form associations to help them deal with common problems

      • 1883 New York Jewelers formed the Jewelers’ Security Alliance to advise jewelers and police about jewelry related crimes


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • Advancements in technology

        • 1850sHolmes invented the first electronic burglar alarm

        • 1859 Brinks formed a freight and package delivery service, later delivered payrolls, invented armored car service and alarm services


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • Advancements in technology

        • 1874 telegraph delivery services created American District Telegraph Company (ADT)


The history professionalization of private security34

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 18th and 19th Centuries

      • The rise of private security in the 19th Century

        • Ineffective public police protection

        • Increased crimes against expanding railroads

        • Increased industrialization which led to mounting conflict between factory owners and their workers


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • There is still a need for security services

        • Rapidly increasing industrialization

        • Need to address labor and management problems


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • 1909 William J Burns

        • U.S. Secret Service Investigator

          • Greatest detective in the U.S. produced

          • Counterfeiters, land frauds and corrupt civil service leaders

        • Director the Bureau of Investigations (FBI)

          • Like by public, disliked by unions


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • U.S. industry still employed private security to prevent crimes, fight labor unions and strikes and infiltrate unions

      • Pre and during WWII (supplying England and France) expanded businesses and the need for security


The history professionalization of private security38

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • As the U.S. entered into WWII there was a need for increased security for national defense to guarded against sabotage and espionage


The history professionalization of private security39

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • Department of Defense’s “Industrial Security Manual”

        • Businesses had to incorporate security measures to receive government contracts

        • Designated “Security Officers”

        • Plant watchmen were into the U.S. Army as part of the military police (200,000)


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • The Korean War and “Cold War” led to:

        • Establishment of Industrial Defense Program

        • Regulates security for 11,000 defense related facilities


The history professionalization of private security41

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • After WWII improved and professionalized methods of private security developed

      • 1955 the American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS) was created as the first professional association for private security professionals

      • Businesses began to develop comprehensive security plans


The history professionalization of private security42

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • Security consulting firms emerged

        • Wackenhut

      • Companies banded together to share information, “Hot Lists” and “Alerts”

        • Remember the Jewelry Security Alliance

        • National Auto Theft Bureau (now NICB)


The history professionalization of private security43

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • In the 1960s and 70s the airlines experienced a new threat which resulted in the creation of airline screening of passengers

      • With businesses operating globally there was now the threat of terrorism and kidnapping of corporate executives and their families

      • General Motors had a security force of 4,200


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • Many individual studies on private security became known as the Hallcrest Report

        • U.S. business lose about $114 billion/year to crime

        • Government at all levels pay for private security services

        • Private individuals pay for private security


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • The Hallcrest Report

        • 1.5 million people were employed per year by private security

        • Average rate of growth in private security is 2.3% (average rate of growth for U.S. workforce 1.2%)


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • The Hallcrest Report (reasons for the increase)

        • Increase in crime in the workplace

        • Increase in fear of crime

        • Limitations on public protection imposed by the fiscal crisis

        • Increased public and business and the use of more cost effective private security


The history professionalization of private security47

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Private Security in the U.S.

    • The 20th Century and the New Millennium

      • The NCVS shows a decrease in crime

        • Demographic changes in the ages of the highest crime committing age groups

        • Increased incarceration of high rate offenders

        • More aggressive policing, record keeping and predicting of crime trends


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Professionalization of Private Security

    • Historically there has been a lack of professionalism in the private industry in terms of certification, training, employment standards and ethics

    • In 1955 a group of security professionals created the American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS) to address the above shortcomings


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Professionalization of Private Security

    • The ASIS had taken great strides:

      • By 1980 it had 13,000 members in 122 chapters

      • Publish a magazine “Security Management”

      • Certified 1,700 individuals as “Certified Protection Professionals”

      • Sponsored research, education and scholarships

      • Sought out by the federal government to advise Homeland Security professionals


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Professionalization of Private Security

    • ASIS has three certifications

      • “Certified Protection Professional”

        • Security Management

      • “Professional Certified Investigator”

        • Case management, evidence collection and case prevention


The history professionalization of private security51

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Professionalization of Private Security

    • ASIS has three certifications

      • “Physical Security Professional”

        • Conduct threat surveys and design and operate integrated security systems including equipment, procedures, and people


The history professionalization of private security52

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Professionalization of Private Security

    • ASIS International has partnered with the Wharton School of Business at the University of Pennsylvania to offer a two week program for security executives

    • This program is designed for chief security officers and high level security managers ans is taught by senior faculty


The history professionalization of private security53

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Professionalization of Private Security

    • One area that is still a concern is the quality of selection, training and performance of security officers

    • Proprietary officers (those hired by the company) are better trained and qualified than contract officers (those hired out to individual employers)

    • Most states require less than 8 hours of pre employment training


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Professionalization of Private Security

    • Several Bills have been introduced to address this concern

      • 1991 Gore Bill, 1993 Sundquist and Martinez Bill

      • But none passed at the federal level

      • However, many states have addressed this issue


The history professionalization of private security55

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Professionalization of Private Security

    • In 2004, President Bush signed the “Intelligence Reform Bill and the 9-11 Implementation Bill

    • Includes the Private Security Officer Employment Authorization Act of 2004 which gives employers the ability to request criminal background checks from the FBI’s database for applicants and holders of security positions

    • Allows for better hiring decisions


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • College Education and Private Security

    • In 1976 only 5 colleges in the U.S. offered bachelor’s degrees in private security

    • By 1990 46 colleges offered bachelor’s degrees and 14 offered masters degrees

    • Today there are PhD programs

    • College education along with certification programs are becoming more important in today’s private security


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Ethics and Private Security

    • “Ethics” is the practical normative study of the rightness and wrongness of human conduct

    • “Basic Ethics” is the broad moral principles that govern all conduct

    • “Applied Ethics” focus these broad principles on specific applications

    • Ethics are extremely important in the private security profession


The history professionalization of private security58

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Ethics and Private Security

    • The Greek philosopher Aristotle in his writings of Nicomachean Ethics, stated that

      • “every art and every inquiry and similarly every action and choice is thought to aim at some good”

      • Do we say this as “do the right thing”


The history professionalization of private security59

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Ethics and Private Security

    • Ethical Conduct of Security Firms & Employees

      • Private security organizations have issued their own “Code of Ethics” to guide members of their organizations

      • Review the ASIS International Code of Ethics on page 24, exhibit 1.7

      • Review the Securitas Values Statement on page 25, exhibit 1.8


The history professionalization of private security60

The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Ethics and Private Security

    • Ethical Issues Endemic to the Security Industry

      • The Law Commission of Canada has four core principles that should support democratic policing

        • Justice (treated fairly and respected)

        • Equality (is this a security principle?)

        • Accountability (is this a security principle?)

        • Efficiency


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Ethics and Private Security

    • Ethical Issues Endemic to the Security Industry

      • Equality?

      • Police serve the public at large, security serves a specific client

      • Police are reactive apprehending criminals after the crime, private security is proactive, focused on preventing crimes and incidents


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Ethics and Private Security

    • Ethical Issues Endemic to the Security Industry

      • Accountable?

      • Private security officers are not accountable because they are not bound by the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court regarding civil liberties issues such the Miranda decision

      • Should private security organizations be self regulating?


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The History & Professionalization of Private Security

  • Ethics and Private Security

    • Ethical Issues Endemic to the Security Industry

      • Think of the ethical issues involved in Moonlighting?

      • When off duty police officers act as private security officers they are often caught in ethical dilemmas: enforce the law or enforce the interests of their temporary employer?

      • Extra employment restrictions?


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