Initiatives to make standard library metadata models and structures available to the semantic web
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Initiatives to make standard library metadata models and structures available to the Semantic Web. Gordon Dunsire, UK [email protected] Mirna Willer, HR [email protected] Presented at WLIC Session 149, Sun 15 Aug 2010, Gothenburg, Sweden. Overview.

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Initiatives to make standard library metadata models and structures available to the semantic web

Initiatives to make standard library metadata models and structures available to the Semantic Web

Gordon Dunsire, UK

[email protected]

Mirna Willer, HR

[email protected]

Presented at WLIC Session 149, Sun 15 Aug 2010, Gothenburg, Sweden


Overview
Overview structures available to the Semantic Web

  • I: Initiatives: IFLA initiatives (FRBR, ISBD, etc.) and the relation to external initiatives (RDA, linked-data vocabularies like VIAF, LCSH, etc.).

  • II: Shift of focus: Potential use of these initiatives to support the Semantic Web (parsing existing legacy records to create huge quantities of high-quality instance triples, the power of inferencing to create new triples, etc.), and the shift of cataloguing focus from record to statement (triple).

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Ifla initiatives background
IFLA initiatives: Background structures available to the Semantic Web

  • IFLA’s initiatives to make standard library metadata models, structures, and vocabularies developed by IFLA available to the Semantic Web, initially stimulated by external projects:

    • RDA: resource description and access

      • Data models meeting (London) with Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI), IEEE Learning Object Metadata (IEEE LOM), W3C Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Ifla initiatives standards models
IFLA structures available to the Semantic Web initiatives: Standards, models

  • “Functional Requirements” family or “FRBR family of models”:

    • FRBR, 1998: Bibliographic Records [data]

    • FRAD, 2009: Authority Data

    • FRSAD, [2010]: Subject Authority Data

    • Preliminary work: theFRBR Namespace Project used the testing area of the National Science Digital Library Metadata Registry (NSDL)

      • Now the Open Metadata Registry

  • ISBD XML in the RDF/XML environment

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010 structures available to the Semantic Web


Ifla initiatives infrastructure
IFLA initiatives: Infrastructure structures available to the Semantic Web

  • 2009-2010: the IFLA Namespaces project is developing an administrative and technical infrastructure to support such initiatives and encourage uptake of standards by other agencies.

  • Basic namespace: “iflastandards.info“

    • FRBR: “http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbrer/” as the basis of the uniform resource identifiers (URIs) of each RDF class and property [entity & relationship] in the FRBR model

    • /frbrer/ to distinguish from FRBRoo [CIDOC CRM]

    • FRAD: “http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frad/”

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Ifla initiatives fr family
IFLA initiatives: FR family structures available to the Semantic Web

  • Representation of FRBRer model element set is mainly complete

    • FRAD and FRSAD close behind

  • Representation in Resource Description Framework (RDF) is informing work on combining and consolidating the model family

    • Also supplies “learning curve” for Semantic Web environment

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Ifla initiatives isbd rdf xml
IFLA initiatives: ISBD RDF/XML structures available to the Semantic Web

  • FRBR is a conceptual model built on the E-R methodology which is intrinsically applicable to representation in RDF, while ISBD is a data standard

  • Design of the RDF representation of ISBD involves:

    • the treatment of aggregated statements in a defined number of elements within the areas;

    • the treatment of mandatory and optional elements and areas;

    • the order of areas and elements within an area;

    • the repeatability of areas and elements;

    • the treatment of punctuation and its double function.

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Related standards rda
Related standards: RDA structures available to the Semantic Web

  • DCMI RDA Task Group has three goals:

    • define RDA modelling entities as an RDF vocabulary of properties and classes;

    • identify in-line value vocabularies as candidates for publication in RDFS or SKOS [nearly completed];

    • develop a Dublin Core Application Profile for RDA based on FRBR and FRAD.

  • Task Group is using the Open Metadata Registry to develop RDF representations of the RDA vocabularies

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Related standards other
Related standards: Other structures available to the Semantic Web

  • The National Library of Sweden has developed a methodology for representing MARC21 records in RDF and implemented it for LIBRIS, the Swedish Union Catalogue

  • The Vocabulary Mapping Framework (VMF) project [funded by UK Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)]:

    • to develop a major expansion of the RDA/ONIX framework for resource categorization

    • to create a tool to support the automated mapping of vocabularies from metadata standards of use to the JISC community, which includes research, teaching, and learning environments

    • CIDOC CRM, FRAD, FRBR, MARC21 and RDA vocabularies [included] & ISBD and UNIMARC [represented]

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Related standards vocabularies
Related standards: Vocabularies structures available to the Semantic Web

  • Instance values from terminologies (subject headings, classification captions and indexes, and thesauri) can be represented in RDF using SKOS:

    • Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH)

    • Faceted Application of Subject Terminology (FAST), Medical Subject Headings (MESH), Form and genre headings for fiction and drama, and Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (TGM)

    • French RAMEAU subject headings

    • DDC Summaries

  • Linked data: [set of] best practices for publishing and connectingstructured data on the Web

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Linked data initiatives
Linked data initiatives structures available to the Semantic Web

  • UDC Consortium: published a selection of around 2,000 UDC classes in 16 languages online as the UDC summary (RDF version in development)

  • Virtual International Authority File (VIAF): a set of linked controlled vocabularies (authority records of personal names)by national bibliographic agencies

  • ISBD: prescribes vocabulary control for the data in the Area 0 for content form and media type. Terms for the elements(content form, content qualification, and media type) are taken from closed lists

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Linked data from catalogue records
Linked data from catalogue records structures available to the Semantic Web

  • Most linked data initiatives involve vocabularies

  • Linked data can also represent bibliographic descriptions

    • Huge quantities of high quality bibliographic metadata are locked in catalogue records

      • UNIMARC, MARC21, EAD, etc.

  • Use RDF “models” to parse the records into linked data

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Disaggregating the metadata record into single statements structures available to the Semantic Web

Record

Record ID

1234

Author

MirnaWiller

Title

“UNIMARC format for authority records”

Date

“2004”

Statements

1234

has Author

MirnaWiller

1234

has Title

“UNIMARC format for authority records”

1234

has Date

“2004”

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Representing a single statement as an RDF triple structures available to the Semantic Web

Statement

1234

has Title

“UNIMARC format for authority records”

[subject] URI =

http://natlibx/

1234

[property] URI =

http://.../???

[object] literal =

“UNIMARC format for authority records”

Triple

<http://natlibx/1234>

<http://.../???>

“UNIMARC ...”

natlibx:1234

some:???

“UNIMARC ...”

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Property URIs structures available to the Semantic Web

has Title = http://.../???

ISBD:has Title Proper

http://iflastandards.info/ns/isbd/elements/1004

FRBR:has Title of the Manifestation

http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbrer/3020

FRBR:has Title of the Expression

http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbrer/3008

FRBR:has Title of the Work

http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbrer/3001

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Inferring new triples from existing triples structures available to the Semantic Web

An RDF property can have a domain (the type of thing the property is applied to) and a range (the type of thing that can be a value of the property)

Example: FRBR property “is created by (person)” (frbrer:2009) has domain Work (frbrer:1001) and range Person (frbrer:1005)

natliby:456

natliby:456

viaf:21647077

rdf:type

rdf:type

frbrer:2009

frbrer:1001

frbrer:1005

viaf:21647077

Therefore natliby:456 is a Work, and viaf:21647077 is a Person

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Linking triples structures available to the Semantic Web

Statement

1234

has Author

MirnaWiller

[object] URI =

viaf:29776655

Triple

natlibx:1234

some:123

viaf:29776655

Another

viaf:29776655

[is Author of]

natliby:456

and

natliby:456

frbrer:2009

viaf:21647077

and

viaf:21647077

foaf:name

“Dunsire, Gordon”

Q: Who is a co-author with MirnaWiller?

A: “Dunsire, Gordon”

Q: Are they persons?

A: Yes

Q: Really? A: VIAF & natliby say so!

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Metadata focus structures available to the Semantic Web

Shift of focus of metadata creation, maintenance, storage, preservation (by professionals, amateurs, machines)

From Record

To Statement(s) = triple(s)

But metadata display ...

... aggregates triples (from multiple sources) to create records on the fly

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


Thank you
Thank you structures available to the Semantic Web

WLIC 2010, Gothenburg: Sun 15 August 2010


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