Electrostatics. +. +. . . . +. Conservation of Charge. Charge can neither be created nor destroyed. Positive ions  fewer electrons than protons. Negative ions  fewer protons than electrons. Electric Charge is measured in Coulombs
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Charge can neither be created nor destroyed
Positive ions  fewer electrons than protons
Negative ions  fewer protons than electrons
Electric Charge is measured in Coulombs
6.3x1018 electrons make 1.0 C of charge
6.3x1018 protons make +1.0 C of charge
Charge can neither be created nor destroyed
rub electrons from a bar with fur
bar becomes positively charge by
the exact amount that fur becomes
negatively charged.
bar becomes a tiny bit less massive
The interaction force between two charges is:
directly proportional to the size of each charge (q1 and q2)
and
inversely proportional to the square of their separation
distance (d)
k= 9.0 x 109 N/m2/C2 Fe>>>Fg
The interaction force between two charges is:
directly proportional to the size of each charge (q1 and q2)
Double either q1 or q2 then F doubles.
Double both then F quadruples
The interaction force between two charges is:
inversely proportional to the square of their separation
distance (d)
Double the separation distance then F is reduced to (1/4)
Halve the separation distance then F is quadrupled (4x)
The interaction force between two charges is:
inversely proportional to the square of their separation
distance (d)
triple the separation distance then F is reduced to (1/9)
(1/3) the speration distance then F is increased 9 fold (9x)
The interaction force between two charges is:
inversely proportional to the square of their separation
distance (d)
If separation distance is increased by 10 then F
(Reduces/increases) by _________________
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As the charges above are released the force on each
(increases or decreases)
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As the charges above are released the speed of each
(increases or decreases)
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As the charges above are released the acceleration of each
(increases or decreases)
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As the charges above are released the speed of each
increases. Thus the green object has a __________
charge. Positive, negative, can’t tell
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As the charges above are released the force on each
increases. Thus the green object has a __________
charge. Positive, negative, can’t tell
Conductors have very loosely bound electrons. That is electrons that are not really attached to one particular nucleus. These electrons are sometimes called free electrons because they move freely when exposed to an electric field
Gold
Copper
Silver
Ionic solutions (salt water)
Insulators have very tightly bound electrons. That is electrons that are firmly attached to one particular nucleus. These electrons are very hard to set in motion throughout the material
Glass
Dry wood
Plastic
Semiconductors have moderately bound electrons. These electrons can be set into motion throughout the material when a moderately strong electric field is established in the material.
Carbon
Silicon
Superconductors have no electrical resistance to charge flow (infinite electrical conductivity)
Very cold silver (269 °C)
Friction
Contact
Induction
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F
E=F/q
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q
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E=F/q

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q
E=F/q
or
F=q E






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F
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q
Uniform Electric
Field between
two charged plates






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Electric Potential energy (J)
Charge (C)
EP = EPE / q
Volt=Joule/Coulomb
F
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q
Electric Potential Energy = Work
Electric Potential Energy = Charge x Volts
1 Joule= Coulomb x Volt
Physical science 101 stop here






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Electric Potential energy (J)
Charge (C)
F
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q
What is the electric
potential between two
plates when it takes 2.0 J
of work to move a 0.001 C
charge from  to + plate?
What is the electric potential between two plates when it takes 2.0 J of work to move a 0.001 Ccharge from  to + plate?
Given: W=EPE=2.0 J Charge=0.001 C
Want: EP
Solution: Electric Potential=
Electric Potential energy (J)
Charge (C)
Given: W=EPE=2.0 J Charge=0.001 C
Want: EP
Solution: Electric Potential=
Electric Potential energy (J)
Charge (C)
=2.0 J/0.001 C = 2000 Volts
1 Volt=1J/C






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F
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q