Causes of goal-seeking behavior and the effects of emotions on motivation
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A presumed internal state causing a “move-toward.”
It is a preferential process that affects change in your equilibrium both physiological and psychological.
Motivation determines that you will engage in certain responses and ignore others that are possible.
It is a genetically programmed behavior pattern designed for survival in a particular environment.
When Instinct overcomes a
Drive Reduction Theory
Homeostatic Drives for Physiological Harmony
Specific Drives to Satisfy Needs
NEED » DRIVE » BEHAVIOR »
SATISFACTION » HOMEOSTASIS
Primary & Secondary Drives
Optimum Level of Arousal
Drives seek the Highest Physiological Arousal
Refers to Goals & their Expected Consequences
“Hunger center,” “Satiation center,” “Swallow counter,” “Stretch-nerves”
Anorexia & Bulimia
Set-point theory & Metabolism
The need for novelty
Need an optimum level of stimulation
Physiological (testosterone & amygdala) & psychological factors involved
Men aroused by images; women aroused by touch
Psychological factors important
Differences in male/female responding
Differences in male & female brains
1.Exploration & Curiosity
Need for novel experiences
Need to experience things for yourself
Need to have physical contact & to be with others of the same species (affiliation)
Intentionally inflicting physical
or psychological harm on others.
Social Learning Theory of Bandura
Collectivist vs. Individualist cultures
Approval by cultures
Males higher due to testosterone?
Mastery of objects, people, & ideas
High achievers vs. low achievers
High achievers are not gamblers
Low achievers take big risks
Personality factors involved
Need to win recognition or to influence & control others
Respect vs. envy
Motivation based on internal rewards (i.e. the basic pleasure of the activity itself, the intellectual challenge, or the satisfaction of curiosity).
Motivation based on external incentives (i.e. pay, praise, attention, or the avoidance of punishment).
Initially, the source of motivation is libido or sexual energy. Later, thanatos and anxiety were motivators.
Motivation is through moral & “religious” values. Understanding the personality is the key to how one is motivated.
Homeostatic Drive Theory
Need > Drive > Response > Goal > Reduced Need
Motivation involves more than one’s physical state.
We are capable of evaluating possibilities & incentives & choosing among them.
We have some degree of “free will.”
We are motivated to actualize our potential (self-actualization) and become a fully-functioning individual.
Self-actualization is using your talents, capacities, & potentials to their fullest.
First Priority Needs
Second Order Needs
Fourth Order Needs
Highest Order Needs
Third Order Needs
Using Talents & Capabilities to the Fullest;
Know & Understand Self & Others More Fully
Self-Respect & Respect from Others
Love & Belongingness
Community, Friends, & Family
Safety & Security
Caring for & Being Cared for; Structure, Order, & Predictability
Air, Water, Food, Sleep, Protection from the Elements, etc.
The Hierarchy of Needs
These are seen in many mammals.
Pleasant or unpleasant
Hypothalamus, pituitary, & amygdala
- endorphins & neuropeptides
Stimulus > Physical Changes > Emotional Response
Stimulus > Simultaneous Physical Changes & Emotional Response
Stimulus > Physical Changes>Interpretation > Emotional Response
About 20% of communications
Unable to describe an emotional state
Conveys more about emotions
“Body language” & gestures
Many facial expressions are universal
Differ in their meaning from culture to culture.
Men tend to show less emotion; women show more concern
Men inhibit their emotions; women express them
Betrayal produces anger in men; hurt & sadness in women
Men & women interpret non-verbal emotional cues differently.
The ABCs of Emotional Change
A = Activating Event
B = Irrational Beliefs
C = Emotional/Behavioral Consequences
D = Disputing
E = New Emotional Reaction
Recognize a Rational Belief and an Irrational Belief.
Irrational Beliefs are demands on one’s self, others or the world.
A Rational Statement is necessary to install the New Emotional Reaction.
1. I must be loved and approved by almost every significant other person in my life.
2. I should be completely competent and achieving in all ways to be a worthwhile person.
3. Certain people I must deal with are thoroughly bad and should be severely blamed and punished for it.
4. It is awful and upsetting when things are not the way I would very much like them to be.
5. My happiness is always caused by external events; I cannot control my emotional reactions.
6. If something unpleasant might happen, I should keep dwelling on it.
7. It is easier to avoid difficulties and responsibilities than to face them.
8. I should depend on others who are stronger than I am.
9. Because something once strongly affected my life, it will do so indefinitely.
10. There is always a perfect solution to human problems, and it is awful if this solution is not found.
10 Common Irrational Beliefs