Slide1 l.jpg
Advertisement
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 25

Motivation and Emotion PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Causes of goal-seeking behavior and the effects of emotions on motivation

Download Presentation

Motivation and Emotion

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Slide2 l.jpg

Motivation

and

Emotion


What is motivation l.jpg

What is Motivation?

  • A general term describing need & instinct regulated behavior with respect to goals.

    A presumed internal state causing a “move-toward.”

    It is a preferential process that affects change in your equilibrium both physiological and psychological.

    Motivation determines that you will engage in certain responses and ignore others that are possible.

  • Motivated behavior is any behavior that is energized in an organized fashion to satisfy a need or gain a goal.

  • A motive is anything that will move you to action.

  • An incentive is a physical object that can be used to motivate you.


What is an instinct l.jpg

What is an Instinct?

  • An inherited behavior pattern in response to an environmental stimulus.

    It is a genetically programmed behavior pattern designed for survival in a particular environment.


Slide5 l.jpg

When Instinct overcomes a

Basic Need


Theories of motivation l.jpg

Drive Reduction Theory

Homeostatic Drives for Physiological Harmony

Specific Drives to Satisfy Needs

NEED » DRIVE » BEHAVIOR »

SATISFACTION » HOMEOSTASIS

Primary & Secondary Drives

Optimum Level of Arousal

Drives seek the Highest Physiological Arousal

Yerkes-Dodson Law

Expectancy Theory

Refers to Goals & their Expected Consequences

Theories of Motivation


Primary drives hunger l.jpg

Primary Drives - Hunger

  • The Hypothalamus

    Monitors Glucose

  • Hunger Detectors

    “Hunger center,” “Satiation center,” “Swallow counter,” “Stretch-nerves”

  • Problems with Eating

    Cultural differences

    Obesity

    Anorexia & Bulimia

  • Weight Loss

    Set-point theory & Metabolism


More primary drives l.jpg

More Primary Drives

  • Thirst

    The hypothalamus

  • Sleep

    The hypothalamus

    Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    Psychological motivators

  • Stimulus Change

    The need for novelty

    Natural curiosity

    Need an optimum level of stimulation


The sexual drive l.jpg

The Sexual Drive

  • Lower animals driven by hormones

    Pheromones

  • Human responding

    Physiological (testosterone & amygdala) & psychological factors involved

  • Gender differences in arousal

    Men aroused by images; women aroused by touch

    Psychological factors important

    Differences in male/female responding

  • Sexual orientation

    Differences in male & female brains


Other important motives l.jpg

Other Important Motives

  • Stimulus Motives

    1.Exploration & Curiosity

    Mammalian trait

    Need for novel experiences

    2.Manipulation

    Need to experience things for yourself

    3.Contact

    Harlow’s experiments

    Need to have physical contact & to be with others of the same species (affiliation)


Aggression l.jpg

Aggression

Intentionally inflicting physical

or psychological harm on others.

  • Instinctive or learned?

    Social Learning Theory of Bandura

  • Cultural differences

    Collectivist vs. Individualist cultures

    Approval by cultures

  • Gender differences

    Males higher due to testosterone?


Psychological motivators l.jpg

Psychological Motivators

  • Achievement

    Mastery of objects, people, & ideas

    Increases self-esteem

    High achievers vs. low achievers

    High achievers are not gamblers

    Low achievers take big risks

    Personality factors involved

  • Power

    Need to win recognition or to influence & control others

    Builds self-esteem

    Respect vs. envy

Tiger Woods

Henry

Kissinger


Areas of achievement l.jpg

Intrinsic motivation

Motivation based on internal rewards (i.e. the basic pleasure of the activity itself, the intellectual challenge, or the satisfaction of curiosity).

Extrinsic motivation

Motivation based on external incentives (i.e. pay, praise, attention, or the avoidance of punishment).

Areas of Achievement


Classical theories of motivation l.jpg

Psychoanalytic Theory

Initially, the source of motivation is libido or sexual energy. Later, thanatos and anxiety were motivators.

Analytic Theory

Motivation is through moral & “religious” values. Understanding the personality is the key to how one is motivated.

Homeostatic Drive Theory

Need > Drive > Response > Goal > Reduced Need

Humanistic Theory

Motivation involves more than one’s physical state.

We are capable of evaluating possibilities & incentives & choosing among them.

We have some degree of “free will.”

We are motivated to actualize our potential (self-actualization) and become a fully-functioning individual.

Self-actualization is using your talents, capacities, & potentials to their fullest.

Classical Theories of Motivation


Slide15 l.jpg

First Priority Needs

Second Order Needs

Fourth Order Needs

Highest Order Needs

Third Order Needs

Self-Actualization

Using Talents & Capabilities to the Fullest;

Know & Understand Self & Others More Fully

Self-Esteem

Self-Respect & Respect from Others

Love & Belongingness

Community, Friends, & Family

Safety & Security

Caring for & Being Cared for; Structure, Order, & Predictability

Physiological Needs

Air, Water, Food, Sleep, Protection from the Elements, etc.

The Hierarchy of Needs


E m o t i o n s l.jpg

Emotions

  • A state of affectively toned arousal.

    Basic emotions:Fear

    Anger

    Sadness

    Joy

    Disgust

    Surprise

    These are seen in many mammals.


The dimensions of an emotional state l.jpg

The Dimensions of an Emotional State


Classifying emotions l.jpg

Classifying Emotions

  • Simplest classification

    Pleasant or unpleasant

  • Location in the brain

    Limbic system

    Hypothalamus, pituitary, & amygdala

  • Biochemistry

    - endorphins & neuropeptides


Theories of emotional responding l.jpg

Theories of Emotional Responding

  • James-Lange Theory

    Stimulus > Physical Changes > Emotional Response

  • Canon-Bard Theory

    Stimulus > Simultaneous Physical Changes & Emotional Response

  • Cognitive Theory

    Stimulus > Physical Changes>Interpretation > Emotional Response


Experiencing emotions l.jpg

Experiencing Emotions

  • Subjective Experiences

    Composed of:


Communicating emotions l.jpg

Communicating Emotions

  • Verbal Communications

    About 20% of communications

    Unable to describe an emotional state

  • Non-verbal Communications

    Conveys more about emotions

    “Body language” & gestures

    Many facial expressions are universal


Other forms of non verbal communication l.jpg

Emblems (Symbols)

Differ in their meaning from culture to culture.

The Serpent

The Dragon

Other Forms of Non-verbal Communication

Higher Self

Wisdom

Animal Nature

Sin


Gender differences in emotional expression l.jpg

Gender Differences in Emotional Expression

  • Differences in the same situation

    Men tend to show less emotion; women show more concern

    Men inhibit their emotions; women express them

    Betrayal produces anger in men; hurt & sadness in women

    Men & women interpret non-verbal emotional cues differently.


Slide24 l.jpg

Sure Cure

for Stress


Dealing with emotions l.jpg

The ABCs of Emotional Change

A = Activating Event

B = Irrational Beliefs

C = Emotional/Behavioral Consequences

D = Disputing

E = New Emotional Reaction

Recognize a Rational Belief and an Irrational Belief.

Irrational Beliefs are demands on one’s self, others or the world.

A Rational Statement is necessary to install the New Emotional Reaction.

1. I must be loved and approved by almost every significant other person in my life.

2. I should be completely competent and achieving in all ways to be a worthwhile person.

3. Certain people I must deal with are thoroughly bad and should be severely blamed and punished for it.

4. It is awful and upsetting when things are not the way I would very much like them to be.

5. My happiness is always caused by external events; I cannot control my emotional reactions.

6. If something unpleasant might happen, I should keep dwelling on it.

7. It is easier to avoid difficulties and responsibilities than to face them.

8. I should depend on others who are stronger than I am.

9. Because something once strongly affected my life, it will do so indefinitely.

10. There is always a perfect solution to human problems, and it is awful if this solution is not found.

Dealing with Emotions

10 Common Irrational Beliefs


  • Login