The outcome of learning is memory; how do we remember and what causes forgetting
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Results from an experience with a single type of event
Caused by the conjunction of 2 or more events
Information Processing Approach
Data is stored in full detail in the sense organ for a fraction of a second.
Almost unlimited capacity
The selective filtering of incoming information
The “cocktail-party” phenomenon
Also called “working memory” or “present conscious memory”
Capacity limited to 7 +/- 2 chunks of information at a time
Time limited to 1.5 to 2 seconds unless rehearsed
The serial-position effect
The primacy & recency effects
Encoding in STM
Phonological & visual coding
Maintaining information in STM
Rote or Maintenance Rehearsal
Almost unlimited capacity
Encoding in LTM by imagery & meaning
Storing in LTM by a semantic treeor semantic network
Transferring from STM to LTM by Elaborative Rehearsal
Maintaining in LTM through rote and elaborative rehearsal
Boolean Operator Process Brain Association
AND More Specific Items Same as ….
NOT Excludes items Different than …
OR Alternative items Similar to …
NEAR Includes items Almost …
Same as … Cougar & Puma
Different than … Tiger & Lion
Similar to … Leopard & Jaguar
Almost … Felines
In the 19th Century, an English mathematician and logician, George Boole (1815-1864) devised a logical foundation for making sense or what appears to be illogical. This foundation became known as Boolean Operators or Boolean Logic. This is the same kind of logic used in computers, on the Internet, and in the brain as it makes associations. Boole described the four operators as: AND, OR, NOT, and NEAR.
Loss of memory for events preceding an accident, injury, or disease without loss of earlier memories.
Loss of memory for events after an accident, injury, or disease but not necessarily for subsequent memories.
New memories block the retrieval of old memories; new learning interferes or inhibits your ability to remember something you had learned.
Old memories block the retrieval of newer memories: old learning interferes or inhibits your ability to learn something now.
Concept Description Example
Decay Theory Gradual fading of memory as a Facts you learned in school gradually
function of time fade out of memory over time.
Interference TheoryDisruption of memory caused by After sifting through your psychology
interference of previously learned lecture, you forget what you learned in
material or newly learned material chemistry class the hour before.
Retrieval TheoryFailure to access material stored in You have difficulty remembering
memory because of encoding failure something you know is stored in
or lack of retrieval cues memory.
Motivated ForgettingRepression of anxiety-provoking You cannot remember a traumatic
material childhood experience.
Retrograde AmnesiaLoss of memory of past events After suffering a blow to the head in a
car accident, you are unable to remem-
ber details of the accident itself.
Anterograde AmnesiaLoss of impairment of the ability to Due to a brain disorder, you find it
form or store new memories difficult to retain new information
Improper storage cues
The memories weren’t given the appropriate cues to encode them properly
Memory changes over time
Neuronal and biochemical changes reconstruct & deconstruct memories
1. Transience: The forgetting that occurs with the passing of time.
2. Absent-mindedness: Often attributed to 4 things, 1) divided attention, 2) insufficient attention at the time of encoding, 3) “operating on automatic,” and 4) encoding at an extremely shallow level.
3.Blocking: Retrieval cues are unavailable even though a word or name has been encoded and stored.
4. Misattribution: Recalling events that never happened or recalling them incorrectly or at the wrong time or place. This occurs in the absence of suggestion.
5. Suggestibility: The tendency to use misleading information from external cues into personal recollections.
6.Bias: Memories of the past are rescripted to fit your present views and needs (past events are filtered by current knowledge, memories are shaped to your present interpretation of the world, the past is constructed as similar or different than the present).
7.Persistence: Remembering things you wish to forget (failures, traumas, sadness, disappointments, etc.).
State Dependent Memory
Learning is best when you are in a particular state of mind and best remembered when in that same state.
Context Dependent Memory
It’s easier to remember something when you’re in the same context in which you learned it.
Styles of Retrieval
1. Sequential Search
Going through each piece of information until the appropriate information is found.
2. Using Retrieval Cues
Retrieval is through a semantic network of associations.
Rehearsal & Repetition
Method of Loci