Classical and operant conditioning, reinforcement procedures and punishment
Learning is only through observation.
Psychologists main concern is conditioning.
The Limitations of the Organism
1. Biological Predispositions
No activity can be learned that the organism can’t & doesn’t have the capacity to learn.
2. Learning Experiences
1. Molecular changes within the single neuron.
2. Communication among the neurons at the synapses.
3. The higher circuits of interconnected neurons (neural pathways).
4. The activity within whole assemblies of neurons that might control complex behavior patterns.
Conditioned the Salivation Response in Dogs
The Pairing of Stimuli over Time
When enough pairings of the UCS & CS occur, this response is created.
Classical Conditioning uses pre-existing natural responses (e.g. reflexes) and makes them respond on cue.
Repeated pairings over time establishes responses.
Loving, liking, & disliking
Relief from phobic responses
Time, smell, & appearance of food
What you reinforce, you’re going to get more of.
Thorndike’s Law of Effect
Rewards increase a rewarded response
Creates a C/E relationship in the environment
1. Continuous Reinforcement
Used to stop a behavior
It must be quick, appropriate, & useful.
Reward Response Reward
In Classical, a C/E relationship must be established between the UCS & CS (NS)
In Operant, reinforcement schedules make the response resistant to extinction
Non-rewarding produces extinction in both
Spontaneous recovery can occur even after an appropriate response has been established
Occur in both
Assimilation – fitting new information into what is already known
Accommodation – refining the data into the current schema
Learning not immediately seen in behavior
Hypothetical representation of a learned event
A strategy for doing something
A series of S-R sequences
The “Ah-ha!” experience
It appears all of a sudden
The first performance is without error
The solution is well-remembered
The solution is highly transferable
Learning how to learn
Bandura’s learning theory
Imitation of observed behavior
Vicarious learning, vicarious reinforcement, and vicarious punishment
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