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Classical and operant conditioning, reinforcement procedures and punishment

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Presentation Transcript
what is learning
What is Learning?
  • A Relatively Permanent Change in Behavior as the Result of Practice or Experience.

Learning is only through observation.

Psychologists main concern is conditioning.

  • Limits to Learning

The Limitations of the Organism

1. Biological Predispositions

No activity can be learned that the organism can’t & doesn’t have the capacity to learn.

2. Learning Experiences

Human Choice

Ignorance

learning the brain
Learning & the Brain
  • 4 Levels of Complexity for Learning in the Brain

1. Molecular changes within the single neuron.

2. Communication among the neurons at the synapses.

3. The higher circuits of interconnected neurons (neural pathways).

4. The activity within whole assemblies of neurons that might control complex behavior patterns.

classical conditioning
Classical Conditioning
  • Ivan Pavlov’s Conditioning Experiments

Conditioned the Salivation Response in Dogs

The Pairing of Stimuli over Time

elements of classical conditioning
Elements of Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
  • Unconditioned Response (UCR)
  • Conditioning (Neutral) Stimulus (CS or NS)
  • Conditioned Response (CR)

When enough pairings of the UCS & CS occur, this response is created.

Classical Conditioning uses pre-existing natural responses (e.g. reflexes) and makes them respond on cue.

pavlov s experiment
Pavlov’s Experiment
  • The natural response is:
  • UCS > UCR
  • Paired the CS (NS) with the UCS and got the UCR
  • After enough pairings the CS or NS produced the CR

Repeated pairings over time establishes responses.

classical conditioning in humans
Classical Conditioning in Humans
  • Emotional responding

Loving, liking, & disliking

  • Immune system responding

T-cells’ response

  • Desentization Therapy

Relief from phobic responses

  • Hunger Pangs

Time, smell, & appearance of food

operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • J.B Watson & B.F. Skinner
  • The Main Law of Behavioristic Psychology:

What you reinforce, you’re going to get more of.

Thorndike’s Law of Effect

Rewards increase a rewarded response

Creates a C/E relationship in the environment

important terms
Important Terms
  • Stimulus Generalization
  • Stimulus Discrimination
  • Extinction (Extinguishing)
  • Secondary Reinforcement
  • Spontaneous Recovery
  • Superstition
reinforcement
Reinforcement
  • Increases The Strength of a Response
  • Positive & Negative Reinforcement
  • Primary & Secondary Reinforcement
shaping behavior
Shaping Behavior
  • Use of Successive Approximations
  • 8 Steps:
  • Decide on the goal
  • Decide which behaviors there are to build from
  • Decide on a reinforcer
  • Plan the program
  • Begin the program
  • Decide when to shift criteria for reinforcement
  • If the program is lost, go to an earlier step or add a new one and go on
  • Continue to the goal
reinforcement procedures
Reinforcement Procedures
  • Reinforcement Schedules

1. Continuous Reinforcement

punishment
Punishment
  • The use of anything that will decrease the strength of a response

Used to stop a behavior

  • Conditions for Punishment to work:

It must be quick, appropriate, & useful.

  • Doesn’t work as well as reinforcement
  • Can produce Learned Helplessness
comparing classical operant conditioning
Comparing Classical & Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcement is important in both

Classical Operant

Reward    Response    Reward

In Classical, a C/E relationship must be established between the UCS & CS (NS)

In Operant, reinforcement schedules make the response resistant to extinction

Non-rewarding produces extinction in both

Spontaneous recovery can occur even after an appropriate response has been established

  • Stimulus generalization & stimulus discrimination

Occur in both

  • New learning can be based on old learning

Assimilation – fitting new information into what is already known

Accommodation – refining the data into the current schema

cognitive learning
Cognitive Learning
  • Latent Learning

Learning not immediately seen in behavior

  • Cognitive Maps

Hypothetical representation of a learned event

A strategy for doing something

A series of S-R sequences

  • Insight Learning

The “Ah-ha!” experience

4 Criterion:

It appears all of a sudden

The first performance is without error

The solution is well-remembered

The solution is highly transferable

more on cognitive learning
Learning Sets

Learning how to learn

Learning strategies

Observational Learning

Bandura’s learning theory

Imitation of observed behavior

Principles:

Vicarious learning, vicarious reinforcement, and vicarious punishment

Learning Style

Your characteristic approach to a learning situation based on your cultural background & unique pattern of abilities

More on Cognitive Learning
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