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The Modern World. The Cold War The Fall of Communism. USA Suffered only a few casualties in WW2 Occupied West Germany Economically Strong Democratic – controlled by people Did not want communism to spread. USSR Suffered many casualties in WW2 Occupied East Germany Economic Struggles

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The modern world

The Modern World

The Cold War

The Fall of Communism


What caused the cold war different ideals

USA

Suffered only a few casualties in WW2

Occupied West Germany

Economically Strong

Democratic – controlled by people

Did not want communism to spread

USSR

Suffered many casualties in WW2

Occupied East Germany

Economic Struggles

Communist – controlled by gov’t

Wanted to spread communism

What Caused the Cold War?Different Ideals


A divided europe

A Divided Europe

  • Winston Churchill: “An Iron Curtain”

    • Europe was divided by “curtain” of differing ideals

  • USA’s Response

    • Containment – do not allow communism to spread; “contain” it

    • Truman Doctrine – help countries who are threatened by communist take over

    • Marshall Plan – Help European countries recover from the devastation of WWII

    • Brinkmanship- ALMOST go to war, but don’t


A divided world

A Divided World

  • The struggle between the USA and the USSR became known as the Cold War.

  • Alliance System

    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

      • USA, Canada, Western European Countries

    • Warsaw Pact

      • USSR and Eastern European Countries

  • Three Worlds Emerge:

    • First World= industrialized, capitalist nations

    • Second World= Communist nations

    • Third World= developing, newly independent nations not aligned with either superpower


Strategies of the cold war

Strategies of the Cold War

  • Foreign Aid

  • Espionage

  • Multinational Alliances

  • Propaganda

  • Brinkmanship

  • Surrogate Wars


Communist expansion

Communist Expansion

  • China

    • Communist Leader: Mao Zedong – USSR helped these guys

    • Nationalist Leader: Jiang Jeshi – USA helped these guys

    • Communist ended up taking over (mainly because these had the help of the peasant population)


China under mao s leadership

China Under Mao’s Leadership

  • New Mandate of Heaven- claimed by Mao and Communists

  • Seized all land, killed those who resisted and gave it to peasants

  • Great Leap Forward= Nationalized businesses and made collective farms, urged small farms- failed

  • Red Guards- student group that promoted Communism


Communism in china

Communism in China

  • Cultural Revolution-

    • Goal- establish a society in which all workers and peasants are equal

    • Intellect and art- dangerous and useless

    • Colleges and schools shut down

    • Resisters were executed or imprisoned

    • Mao realized he had to stop the CR in 1968


1950s 60s us and soviet tensions

1950s & 60s US and Soviet Tensions

  • Competition between US and USSR to place a man on the moon and explore space

  • Cuba- Castro seizes power-

  • Bay of Pigs- failed US attempt to help Cuban exiles retrieve control

  • Missile Crisis- USSR removed missiles, USA will not invade Cuba

  • Surrogate Wars- wars in which the US and USSR aid opposing groups, but do not fight directly (like in China)


The us goes to war

The US Goes to War…

  • Korean War

    • Korea was divided after WW2 along the 38th parallel

    • North Korea was communist South Korea was non-communist

    • In 1950, NK attacked SK, UN responded by sending in troops

    • In 1953, there as a “cease fire” – 38th Parallel stayed the same

  • Vietnam War

    • Communist Leader – Ho Chi Minh – USSR helped these guys

    • Nationalist Leader – Ngo Dinh Diem – USA helped these guys

    • Domino Theory – The USA got involved because they thought that if communism began to spread that it would continue throughout the region

    • Communist were able to maintain power- caused a lot of division in the USA


The cold war continues

The Cold War Continues

  • Tensions b/n the USA and the USSR

    • During the Korean War and Vietnam War tensions grew

    • Arms race – see who could build the biggest arsenal of nuclear weapons (militarism)

    • In the 1970s détente took place (an easing of tensions)

      • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) –Limited the number of weapons that each country could have

    • In the 1980s the Arms Race picked back up with the USSR’s invasion of Afghanistan


1970s 80s tensions continue iran

1970s- 80s Tensions ContinueIRAN

Westernized with US assistance

Ayatollahs- Muslim leaders disagreed

Ayatollah Khomeini- living in exile, returned and set up an Islamic govt.

New Anti-US policies

60 US Hostages in 1979 held for 444 days

A. K. urged Muslims to overthrow their govts. (Including S. Hussein)

War b/t Iran & Iraq- US gave aid to both sides, USSR only to Iraq


Afghanistan and the 1980s

Afghanistan and the 1980s

  • Communist govt. from 1950s

  • 1970s Muslim revolt= Russia invaded

  • Afgan mujahideen (holy warriors) defeated Soviets (with US HELP)

  • To protect oil, Carter stopped grain shipments, boyotted the 1980 Olympics-

  • Gorbachev- removed Soviet troops from Mid. East in 1989


The fall of communism in central and eastern europe

The Fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe

Chapter 35 Sections 3 and 4


The halt to soviet society

The halt to Soviet Society

  • Society wasn’t growing due to policies that discouraged political discussion and disagreement- censored writers, restricted freedom of speech and worship.


The beginning of change

The Beginning of Change

Mikhail Gorbachev instituted glasnost policy that encouraged the free flow of ideas- churches opened, released dissidents from prison, book publication by banned authors, some freedoms of the press


Inefficient and unproductive economy

Inefficient and Unproductive Economy

  • Consumers protested standing in line, prices, and inferior products – effects of central planning

  • 1985 Peristroika (economic restructuring) to restructure the economy- allowed small private businesses and local managers control over farms and factories


Expense of the arms race

Expense of the Arms Race

  • Ronald Regan- HUGE military expansion ($2 trillion in the US)

  • NO WAY the Soviets could keep up

  • 1987- Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty- banned nuclear missiles with ranges of 300 to 3,400 miles


Coup against gorby

Coup against Gorby

  • Democratization party- demands for more democracy

  • Hard-line Communists demanded his resignation- sent military to Moscow.

  • Boris Yeltsin (mayor) turned against the government and military troops did not follow their orders

  • Gorbachev returned to Moscow and continued with the reforms.


The end of the ussr

The End of the USSR

  • Due to the collapse of the coup the communist party collapsed

  • Estonia and Latvia declared independence- others followed.

  • Yeltsin- meeting with the republics to create the CIS


Economic problems again

Economic Problems… AGAIN?!

  • 1992- Shock Therapy- abrupt shift to free market economics

  • Lowered trade barriers, removed priced controls and ended subsidies to state industries

  • Initial 800% inflation! Still struggling economically


Chechnya

Chechnya

Large population of Muslims- declared independence in 19991-

Yeltsin denied their right to secede, dent troops and destroyed the capital

Cease fire (Yeltsin reelected) fighting broke out again


The winds of change eastern europe

The winds of change… Eastern Europe

  • Soviet reforms of the 80’s and the consequences led others in the bloc to shift away from communism.

  • Most began with political and social reforms


Poland 1980 1995

Poland 1980-1995

Solidarity- union led by Lech Walesa- protested to be recognized.

The economy was bad… real bad!

Communism wasn’t working, so they voted in Walesa as president

His reforms didn’t work either.


Poland 1995 today

Poland 1995 - Today

Poland elected a former communist to leadership. Alexander Kwasniewsk

He continued with free market economy and democratic reforms-

The economy is still not great, but Poland is now a full member of NATO


Hungarian reforms

Hungarian Reforms

  • Inspired by changes in Poland

  • Small stock market, free enterprise, multi-party, free elections

  • Democratic reforms followed

  • Economic down-turn in the late 90s

  • Full member of NATO


German reunification

German Reunification

  • East Germans were inspired by Hungary’s reforms

  • Many East Germans visited Hungary

  • East German Government shut the borders

  • Protests for free travel(later added free elections) broke out- communist leaders lost their power

  • Eventually led to the reunification of Germany


The modern world

Escape Video

Mr. Gorbechez… Tear Down This Wall!

Call for Reunification

Celebration of the Fall of the Berlin Wall


Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia

  • Inspired by the reforms of their neighbors and the fall of Berlin Wall protesters demanded free elections

  • Government squashed the protest… making it worse

  • 11/25/1989 500,000 protesters demanded and end to communist rule… it happened


Czech republic and slovakia

Czech Republic and Slovakia

  • Shock therapy reforms hurt the Slovaks more than the Czechs

  • Soon they began to drift apart- the people wanted two nations

  • 1993 it split into the two countries


Russia today

Russia Today

  • Leader after Yeltsin- Vladimir Putin- continued with reforms

  • Economic, political and social problems continue

  • 1992-2002- there were between 30,000-50,000 homeless children, high rates of domestic violence, high unemployment, declines in life expectancy, standard of living and population

  • Some improvements- Market economy adapted to needs of Russia

  • 2008- Dmitry Medvedev new president- will continue to reform Russia


Chinese reforms

Chinese Reforms

  • 1960s split with the USSR

  • 1970s China reaches out to the USA

  • Four Modernizations (Deng)

    • Agriculture- leased land- fixed quota to govt- the rest for the farmer

    • Industry- allowed some private businesses to operate

    • Defense- sought new technology

    • Science and technology- welcomed foreign influences and goods


Tiananmen square

Tiananmen Square

  • Problems with reform

    • Gap b/t rich and poor

    • Western ideas for politics- students questioned lack of political freedom

  • Students demand democracy

    • Student protest in the square

    • Won support of others

    • Huge gathering in the square

    • June 4, 1989- standoff ended soldiers stormed the square attacked and killed hundreds, wounded thousands


China today

China Today

  • After Deng’s death, communication b/t USA and China increased

  • China is economically open, but politically closed

  • China maintains economic growth

  • Economic and social conditions are improving- educational opportunities

  • 2000- USA normalized trade with China

  • 2008- China will host the Olympics


What about africa

What About Africa?

  • Following WWII European nations gave up colonies

  • Late 1950’s many, though not ready, gained independence

  • Nigeria- civil wars, federal system, martial law, differing cultural groups don’t trust each other, relief from debt from other nations, still have war, corruption, poverty, hunger, and violence BUT their oil exports are growing and they have economic growth


Ghana

Ghana

  • Kwame Nkrumah, the African Prime Minister of Ghana, created a new Constitution

  • The constitution allowed for some African representation in the government

  • Kwamebecame president and Ghana was first African State to achieve independence in 1957


South africa

South Africa

  • Former Dutch Colony

  • Apartheid- complete separation of races

  • Blacks protested Nelson Mandela’s arrest

  • 1976- riots over the death of Stephen Biko in Soweto (Black Township)

  • Western nations boycotted S. Africa.

  • Mandela freed

  • Apartheid ended.

  • Today- biggest problem is AIDS epidemic


India gains independence

India Gains Independence

Chapter 34 Section 1


Why nations earned independence

Why Nations Earned Independence

  • Cost and commitments of holding a colony

  • Questioning the practice of holding colonies

  • The colonized people began to press for their freedoms and independence.


1920 s

1920’s

Mohandas Gandhi- first nonviolent campaign for independence

Civil Disobedience: non- cooperation, boycotts, strikes, demonstrations, the Salt March.


1940 muslim league

1940- Muslim League

There were two parties: Muslim League and Congress (Hindu)

Muhammad Ali Jinnah- encouraged all Muslims to resign from Congress party.

Major Concern= That the congress party would mainly protect Hindu interests.

The only thing in common was slavery to the British.


1947 independence

1947- Independence!

What’s up with this?

The British turned over rule to India and Pakistan

Major issue: who would have the power AND how to divide the people- Muslims & Hindus

Partitian- India divided into three regions.


1947 violence

1947- Violence

Assassinated trying to urge tolerance of Muslim refugees

In all 1 million died in the summer of 1947 while moving to the partitioned areas.


The nation mourns gandhi s death

The Nation Mourns Gandhi’s Death


Conflict in kashmir

Conflict in Kashmir

Yep, that’s us!

Located in North Eastern India

Ruler was Hindu, but most of the people were Muslim

Conflict between India and Pakistan for control 1948-1949

UN cease fire- 1/3 under Pakistan’s control, the rest under India’s


Nehru the first prime minister

Nehru- the First Prime Minister

  • Modernization of the newly independent India- ruled for 17 years

  • Industrialization

  • Social reforms

  • Elevate status of lower castes

  • Improved women’s rights


Problems following nehru s death

Problems following Nehru’s death

Bangladesh- 1971- became a new nation after a civil war between East and West Pakistan broke out.

1 million + died in the war

India supported Bangladesh (East Pakistan)


Indira gandhi

Indira Gandhi

Prime Minister following Nehru’s death 1966-1975 then from 1980 – 1984.

Sikh extremists wanted independence.

India’s army attacked their temple and she was assassinated in retaliation


1987 sri lanka

1987- Sri Lanka

Gained independence from Britain in1948

Ethnic conflicts between the Tamil (Hindus) and Buddhists

The civil war still continues today even after India has tried to help


Israel and the middle east

Israel and the Middle East

Formation of Israel

Arab-Israeli Conflicts


Arab israeli conflict cause and effect the balfour declaration

Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectThe Balfour Declaration

  • Cause- Jewish Diaspora (2nd century) Britain gained control of Palestine after WWII- Jews began moving to the region there was much sympathy for the Jews- the UN recommended partitioning Palestine

  • Effect- the declaration supported a Jewish state, but the creation failed and hostility between Jews and Palestinians grew. * Outbreak of a full-scale Arab-Israeli War


Arab israeli conflict cause and effect formation of an independent israel

Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectFormation of an Independent Israel

  • Cause- After WWII the UN addressed the matter- the UN decided to partition Palestine.

  • Effect- Islamic countries voted against it- Israel got a hostile welcome from their neighbors.


The modern world

The UN plan to Partition Palestine

Video link


Arab israeli conflict cause and effect 1956 arab israeli war 2 conflicts

Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1956 Arab-Israeli War (2 Conflicts)

War #1

  • Cause- Six Arab states invaded Israel

  • Effect- Israel won and the state of Palestine did not come to being.

    War #2

  • Cause Egypt was upset because the British and US withdrew financial support for the Aswan Dam and Seized the Suez Canal

  • Effect- British and French air support helped Israel win, Israel withdrew from Egypt


Arab israeli conflict cause and effect 1967 six day war

Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1967 Six Day War

  • Cause- Arab states made hostile statements, Israel believed they would attack after they closed of Israel’s access to the Red Sea

  • Effects- Israel lost 8,000 troops- Arabs lost over 15,000- Israel expanded its border including Jerusalem, West Bank, Golan Heights and Sinai Peninsula.


Arab israeli conflict cause and effect 1973 yom kippur war

Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and Effect1973 Yom Kippur War

  • Cause- Joint Arab forces (led by Egypt) attacked Israel and caught them off guard and regained much of their territory. Yom Kippur is the holiest Jewish holiday

  • Effects- Israel's counter attack, regained the territory and a truce was agreed to.


Arab israeli conflict cause and effect camp david accords sadat and begin

Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectCamp David Accords- Sadat and Begin-

  • Cause- Egypt (Sadat)extended an offer of peace and recognition to Israel

  • Effects- trip to D.C where agreement was signed- Egypt became the first Arab state to recognize Israel’s right to exist in exchange for the Sinai Peninsula- Ended 30 years of hostility! BUT, Sadat was assassinated!


Arab israeli conflict cause and effect declaration of principles rabin and arafat

Arab-Israeli Conflict- Cause and EffectDeclaration of Principles- Rabin and Arafat

  • Cause- Ongoing conflict over Israel’s occupied territories that led to peace talks.

  • Effects- allow Palestinians to have their own self rule in Gaza and West Bank- BUT a Jewish extremist assassinated the Jewish Prime Minister (Rabin)

  • This ignited even more conflict that continues today.


Golda meir

Golda Meir

Prime Minister 1969-1974

Born in Kiev, Ukraine and lived in Milwaukee

Zionists- part of the movement to form Israel

Various government positions

One of the world’s first female prime ministers

Yom Kippur War


Is the world a better place

Is the world a better place?

Human Rights

Ethnic Conflict

Genocide


The universal declaration of human rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948

  • With the end of that war, and the creation of the United Nations, the international community vowed never again to allow atrocities like those of that conflict happen again. 

  • World leaders decided to complement the UN Charter with a road map to guarantee the rights of every individual everywhere.

  • Has this been effective and stopped the atrocities?


The modern world

THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is the most famous human rights agreement in the world. It contains 30 human rights.


The break up of yugoslavia

The Break-up of Yugoslavia

  • Created after WWI

  • Plagued with ethnic conflicts- there were 8 different groups in the region

  • After WWII Became a federation of 6 republics- all with mixed ethnic groups.

  • Held together by Josip Tito from 1945-1980


Changes in yugoslavia

Changes in Yugoslavia

With Slobodan Milosevic’s rise to power

Slovenia and Croatia declared independence in 1991

Bloody war-(Serbian Army) they remained independent


Nationalism spreads

Nationalism Spreads

  • After the Slovenes and Croats got independence, others followed.

  • Bosnia-Herzegovenia declared independence- backed by the Croats and Muslims opposed by the Serbs

  • Serbian forces used violence and forced immigration- Ethnic Cleansing to rid the Muslims


The modern world

Video clip


Rwanda ethnic cleansing

Rwanda- Ethnic Cleansing

  • What caused it?

    • Fighting between Hutus and Tutsis as they fought for control of the government

    • Hutus massacred about 500,000 Tutsis

  • Genocide- systematic execution of a group based on race

  • What did the USA do about this?

  • Keepers of the memory (video)


So after all this has the problem ended no

So after all this… has the problem ended? NO!!!

Today, SIXTY YEARS after the Declaration people around the world are:

Tortured or abused in at least 81 countries

Face unfair trials in at least 54 countries

Restricted in their freedom of expression in at least 77 countries


Terrorism 36 4

Terrorism (36.4)

A New Warfare

Impacts on Our Lives


The modern world

Islam Remembers 9-11

Link to video

http://www.memritv.org/clip/en/2104.htm


Islamic summit resolution

Islamic Summit Resolution

  • Terrorism is an act carried out to achieve an inhuman and corrupt objective, and involving threat to security of any kind, and violation of rights acknowledged by religion and mankind.

  • does not apply to the following:  a. acts of national resistance exercised against occupying forces, colonizers and usurpers; b. resistance of peoples against cliques imposed on them by the force of arms; c. rejection of dictatorships and other forms of despotism and efforts to undermine their institutions; d. resistance against racial discrimination and attacks on the latter's strongholds; e. retaliation against any aggression if there is no other alternative.

    Resolution 2 0/5-P (1.5) of the Fifth Islamic Summit


The us stated department s definition

The US Stated Department’s Definition

  • Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant (includes both civilians and military personnel who are unarmed or off duty at the time) targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience.

  • International terrorism= terrorism involving citizens or the territory of more than one country

  • The term "terrorist group" means any group practicing, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism


The dictionary

The Dictionary

  • Terrorist- [n]  a radical who employs terror as a political weapon or [adj]  characteristic of someone who employs terrorism (especially as a political weapon); -terrorist activity-

  • Freedom fighter- [n]  a person who takes part in an armed rebellion against the constituted authority (especially in the hope of improving conditions)


Your turn

Your Turn:

  • Work with your group to draft a clear, concise definition of terrorism….

  • Be sure to discuss the information found on the definition sheet provided by the teacher.

  • You will be assigned one of eight organizations to investigate for acts of terrorism to determine if they were terrorists or freedom fighters


Attempts to unite the world

Attempts to Unite the World

New Nationalisms

Global Economy

Interdependence


Nationalism and the pan african movement

Nationalism and the Pan-African Movement

Movement organized by Kwame Nakruma (Ghana) to enable Africa to compete with the world economically

Individually they have little power- together they can do great things.

red: the blood that unites all people of African ancestry, and shed for liberation;

black: people whose existence as a nation, though not a nation-state

green: the abundant natural wealth of Africa.

What do the colors stand for?


Pan arabism

Pan-Arabism

  • Movement (started during Ottoman Empire) to politically unite all Arabs into one organization

  • Arab League- an organization (1945) to give political voice/power to Arab Nations.

  • Fractured due to defeats to Israel and coalitions who opposed Iraq in Gulf Wars


Impacts of science and technology space exploration

Impacts of Science and TechnologySpace Exploration

Space shuttles, satellites, International Space Station

Impact- faster communication, shared cultures (commercial satellites), security concerns


Impacts of science and technology astronomy

Impacts of Science and TechnologyAstronomy

Hubble Telescope

Pathfinder on Mars

Impact- greater understanding of the world beyond ours

Possible energy sources


Impacts of science and technology communication

Impacts of Science and TechnologyCommunication

Smaller computer chips- cell phones, fax machines, internet, personal computers, etc

Impact- the world is becoming “smaller” What happens in other areas impact us immediately


Impacts of science and technology health and medicine

Impacts of Science and TechnologyHealth and Medicine

Laser surgery, ultra sounds, MRI’s etc

Early detection and treatment of illnesses

Impact- longer life span


Impacts of science and technology genetics

Impacts of Science and TechnologyGenetics

Isolation of individual genes, genetic engineering, cloning.

Impact- global debate on ethics

Can be used to alter society in a negative way


Impacts of science and technology agriculture

Impacts of Science and TechnologyAgriculture

Increased crop yields (fertilizers and pesticides) genetic engineering of plants

Impacts- more food, BUT increased cancers , birth defects and pollutions to the environment


Global economic development cause and effects

Global Economic Development Cause and Effects

  • Why have manufacturing jobs moved overseas?

  • Emerging nations have workers that have the skills for manufacturing jobs and work for lower wages

  • Developed nation workers are more educated and work in information industries.


Globalization the spread diffusion of cultural or economic influences from one country to another

Positives

Promotes peace thru trade

Create jobs in lesser countries

Raises the standard of living for everyone

Negatives

Loss of culture for the lesser country

Benefits the richer country more

Takes jobs from the developed country and gives it to a lower paid workers

GlobalizationThe spread & diffusion of cultural or economic influences from one country to another


Globalization example

Globalization Example


Terms in globalization

Terms in Globalization

  • DevelopedCountries

    • Nations with the industrialization , transportation, and business facilities for the production of manufactured goods

  • Emerging Nations

    • Nations in the process of becoming industrialized

  • Multinational Corporations

    • Companies that operate in more than one country – Ford, Toyota, Exxon

  • Free Trade

    • Elimination of Trade Barriers between countries, meant to encourage economic growth

  • Global Interdependence

    • Regions around the world depend on each other for goods: example: I drink tea from China while wearing my robe made in Bangladesh and watching a TV made in Japan


Multinational corporations

Multinational Corporations

  • Computer technologies made such corporations possible due to faster business transactions.

  • Created the Global Economy


Nafta

NAFTA

  • North American Free Trade Agreement

  • Elimination of trade barriers (tariffs) on goods traded between member nations

  • North American nations responded to the European Economic Community (now the European Union) that was successful


Examples of economic unions

Examples of Economic Unions

  • EU - European Union

  • G8 – Group of Eight

  • OPEC – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement

  • THERE ARE 14 ORGANIZED ECONOMIC UNIONS


Demand for energy increases

Demand for Energy Increases

  • Industry and trade require a lot of resources (such as oil)

  • When OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) varies production of petroleum and oil exports prices increase

  • Also, the pollution caused by industry has led to acid rain and global warming.


Release of chlorofluorocarbons

Release of Chlorofluorocarbons

  • By-Product (pollution) caused by manufacturing

  • Leads to erosion of the ozone layer causing Ultraviolet radiation to increase this leads to skin cancer


Destruction of the environment

Destruction of the Environment

  • Deforestation, pollution, over development is destroying natural habitats

  • Many plant and animal species are becoming extinct.


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