Pumping Oxygenating Machine. Cardiopulmonary bypass. Uses of cardiopulmonary bypass. Components of cardiopulmonary bypass. Operation. Cardiopulmonary bypass.
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Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery. It also maintains the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the body. The CPB pump itself is often referred to as a Heart-Lung Machine or the Pumper.
Uses of cardiopulmonary bypass
CPB used for induction of total body hypothermia which is a state when the body can be maintained for an hour or more without perfusion(blood flow). Cardiopulmonary bypass is commonly used in hart surgery because of the difficulty of operating on the beating heart. Operations requiring the opening of the chambers of the heart require the use of CPB to support the circulation during that period.
Bubble oxygenators have no intervening barrier between blood and oxygen, these are called 'direct contact' oxygenators. Membrane oxygenators introduce a gas-permeable membrane between blood and oxygen that decreases the blood trauma of direct-contact oxygenators
Another type of oxygenator gaining favor recently is the heparin-coate blood oxygenator which is believed to produce less systemic inflammation and decrease the propensity for blood to clot in the CPB circuit
A CPB circuit consists of a systemic circuit for oxygenating blood and reinfusing blood into a patient's body, and a separate circuit for infusing cardioplegia to stop the heart and provide myocardia protection.
A CPB circuit must be primed with fluid and all air expunged before connection to the patient. The circuit is primed with a crystalloid solution and sometimes blood products are also added.
1- Lim M (2006). "The history of extracorporeal oxygenators". Anaesthesia61 (10): 984-95.