Who responds to smarter measures lessons from the sustainable travel towns in england and scotland
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Who responds to smarter measures? Lessons from the Sustainable Travel Towns in England and Scotland. What Works in Behaviour Change? 28 June 2010, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh. Dr Jillian Anable: The Centre for Transport Research, University of Aberdeen

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Who responds to smarter measures lessons from the sustainable travel towns in england and scotland

Who responds to smarter measures? Lessons from the Sustainable Travel Towns in England and Scotland.

What Works in Behaviour Change? 28 June 2010, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh

  • Dr Jillian Anable: The Centre for Transport Research, University of Aberdeen

    Lynn Sloman, Carey Newson: Transport for Quality of Life

    Sally Cairns: Transport Research Laboratory

    Phil Goodwin: University West of England

    Derek Halden: DHC Ltd


What are smart choices
What are Smart Choices?

  • techniques for influencing travel

    behaviour towards more sustainable

    options

  • sometimes called ‘soft’ measures

  • more psychology than engineering

  • engage with people about their travel choices

  • may involve:

    • better information about existing travel options

    • marketing and communication

    • new transport services, closely focussed on target market

    • carrots and sticks, working together



Questions
Questions

  • How effective are smarter choices?

  • Who responds to smarter choices?

  • What are the ingredients that influence effectiveness?

  • What are the psychological processes that lead to travel behaviour change?

  • How can these processes be ‘tapped’ more effectively?


Questions1
Questions

  • How effective are smarter choices?

  • Who responds to smarter choices?

  • What are the ingredients that influence effectiveness?

  • What are the psychological processes that lead to travel behaviour change?

  • How can these processes be ‘tapped’ more effectively?


Scepticism about smarter measures
Scepticism about Smarter Measures

  • ‘Cherry picked’ evidence?

  • Unscientific monitoring and evaluation?

  • Behaviour change is just short term?

  • ‘Preaching to the converted’?

  • Only has an impact on short journeys?

  • Widens health inequalities?

    After two large-scale demonstration studies, what will we learn?


Sustainable travel towns england
Sustainable Travel Towns: England

£10m from DfT (2004-2009)


Stts balance of measures revenue
STTs: balance of measures (£revenue)

Worcester

Darlington

Peterborough

Workplace travel planning

Travel awareness campaigns

Cycling and walking promotion

School travel planning

Car club

Personal travel planning

Public transport info & marketing


Smarter choices smarter places scotland

Kirkwall

Kirkintilloch / Lenzie

Dundee

Glasgow

Stenhousemuir

/ Larbert

Barrhead

Dumfries

Smarter Choices, Smarter Places: Scotland

£15m from SG (2008-2011)


  • Kirkintilloch/Lenzie

  • High street information centre

  • Events promoting walking and cycling

  • Workplace and school travel planning

  • Kirkwall

  • Improve walking environment in the town centre and Quoybanks

  • Maintain strong cycle culture

  • Promote bus use including travel training and tourist information

  • Larbert/Stenhousemuir

  • Rebuild bus use

  • Encourage walking and cycling for work and shopping trips to the town centre

  • Improve local cycling facilities

  • Dundee

  • Market bus use to build on existing high levels

  • Reinforce health benefits of cycling through work with schools and families

  • Make bicycles available through loan schemes

  • Barrhead

  • New paths in Auchenback and links to Darnley Country Park

  • Develop local cycle culture

  • Improve image of bus travel

  • Develop safer routes to schools

  • Glasgow East End

  • Improvements to three key walking and cycling corridors

  • Personalised travel planning

  • Address local safety concerns

  • Dumfries

  • Persuade drivers to walk more for short trips

  • Improve bus routes and ticketing

  • Link existing cycle routes to town centre

  • Park and choose schemes


Stts data sources
STTs: data sources

Household travel survey (undertaken 2004 & 2008, 4000 people each town each survey)

Counts of:

Vehicles

Cyclists

Pedestrians

Bus passengers

School and workplace surveys

Town Data

National Data

  • National Travel Survey medium-sized urban areas

  • National Road Traffic Estimates

  • urban roads


Household surveys changes in trips
Household surveys – changes in trips

All trips

Car driver

Car passenger

Bus

Cycle

Walk

-15

+15

Change in trip numbers per 100 people per day 2004 to 2008; weighted dataset; trips<50km


Outcomes comparing car travel from surveys with traffic car counts
Outcomes: comparing car travel from surveys with traffic / car counts

Household surveys

Traffic / car counts


Questions2
Questions car counts

  • How effective are smarter choices?

  • Who responds to smarter choices?

  • What are the ingredients that influence effectiveness?

  • What are the psychological processes that lead to travel behaviour change?

  • How can these processes be ‘tapped’ more effectively?


Outcomes patterns of demand travel survey results

Mode shift car counts

e.g. replacement of trip by car with trip by bus, bike or foot

+

Destination/mode shift

e.g. replacement of medium length car trips with shorter journeys by bus, bike or foot

+

Trip evaporation

7% of reduction in car use from a net reduction in trips

Outcomes: patterns of demand(travel survey results)


Car driver trips and distance variation in impact according to trip length
Car driver trips and distance: variation in impact according to trip length

Largest behaviour change seen in short trips, but largest reductions in DISTANCE from medium/ long distance trips


Outcomes who changed behaviour
Outcomes: who changed behaviour? to trip length

  • men + women equally

  • mostage groups (but 41-45 yrs & 61-65 yrs show less change)

  • People at a ‘transition point’ most susceptible:

    • largest reductions: college students, job seekers, recently retired

    • lowest reductions: full-time and part-time workers and intensive car users (41-45 year olds)

Car driver mode share for full-time workers fell by 5%,

but contributed 40% of reduction in car driver trips



Which journey purposes were most affected
Which journey purposes were most affected? to trip length

  • Looking at reduction in total car driver distance (trips<50km):

    • Leisure trips contribute 45% of savings

    • Shopping trips contribute 30%

    • Work-related business contributes 21%

  • Effects on most journey purposes, in most distance bands

  • leisure and shopping: largest and most consistent effect on car driver mode share and distance

  • business and commuter travel: substantial effects on car driver distance (but effect on inconsistent between towns)


Questions3
Questions to trip length

  • How effective are smarter choices?

  • Who responds to smarter choices?

  • What are the ingredients that influence effectiveness?

  • What are the psychological processes that lead to travel behaviour change?

  • How can these processes be ‘tapped’ more effectively?


Ingredient 1 combination of hard soft
Ingredient 1: Combination of hard + soft to trip length

In the STTs, the largest changes took place:

  • Where cycle infrastructure was improved (Darlington)

  • Where bus services were improved (Peterborough)

    In Scotland, after the first year of SCSP – little behaviour change so far as infrastructure has not yet been sufficiently improved.


Ingredient 2 smarter places scsp
Ingredient 2: Smarter PLACES (SCSP) to trip length

Need to pay attention to local culture and norms

  • Not all initiatives suit all places (e.g. individualised marketing, cycling)

“I would like to travel by car more often”

Smarter Choices, Smarter Places baseline study (2009)


Ingredient 3 segmentation scsp
Ingredient 3: Segmentation (SCSP) to trip length

Target motivational and hard-to-reach groups

Smarter Choices, Smarter Places baseline study (2009)


Ingredient 4 complementary measures
Ingredient 4: Complementary measures to trip length

Change needs to take place at three levels:

  • Individual – incorporating values, attitudes, beliefs, social norms, identity and intentions

  • Interpersonal – the relationship between individuals (trust, social networks)

  • Community – dynamics of structures and institutions (societal norms and culture; communications and the media)

This requires a ‘multi-pronged attack’ – a variety of synergistic measures and a sub-regional approach to foster a ‘diffusion effect


Ingredient 5 less focus on co 2 scsp
Ingredient 5: Less focus on CO to trip length2? (SCSP)

Smarter Choices, Smarter Places baseline study (2009)

“People should be allowed to use their cars as much as they like even if it damages the environment”


Ingredient 6 a trustworthy messenger
Ingredient 6: A trustworthy messenger to trip length

  • A clear brand identity

  • Remote from local government identity


Questions4
Questions to trip length

  • How effective are smarter choices?

  • Who responds to smarter choices?

  • What are the ingredients that influence effectiveness?

  • What are the psychological processes that lead to travel behaviour change?

  • How can these processes be ‘tapped’ more effectively?


If only it were this simple

Improve service to trip length

Improve knowledge

Improve attitudes

Change

Behaviour

If only it were this simple …


Barriers to behaviour change
Barriers to behaviour change to trip length

  • Values

  • Efficacy

  • Status and identity

  • Social norms

  • Perceived control

  • Affective attitudes

  • HABIT

  • Choice

Anable, J. et al. (2006) An Evidence Base Review of Attitudes to Climate Change and Transport. for the DfT


Theories of behaviour change
Theories of behaviour change to trip length

Source: Anable, J.; Lane, B and Kelay, T. (2006) An Evidence Base Review of Attitudes to Climate Change and Transport. Report for the UK Department for Transport, London.


Need to change context attitudes
Need to change context + attitudes to trip length

Two ways of thinking about changing behaviour:

  • Influencing what people consciously think about (at all levels)

  • Altering the context in which people act (The ‘choice environment’)

    = need a combination of hard + soft


Questions5
Questions to trip length

  • How effective are smarter choices?

  • Who responds to smarter choices?

  • What are the ingredients that influence effectiveness?

  • What are the psychological processes that lead to travel behaviour change?

  • How can these processes be ‘tapped’ more effectively?


Conclusions
Conclusions to trip length

  • Hard + Soft = Context + Attitudes

  • Travel behaviour change means more than just mode shift

  • Not just short journeys – principals of smarter choices should be applied to medium distance journey lenghts

    We know Smart Measures work, but:

  • Need panel data: is it a few people changing a lot or a lot of people changing a little?

  • Still don’t know who responds in terms of attitudes and the psychological processes involved


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