NOAA’s Joint Polar Satellite System and the NPP Satellite: Delivering the Next Generation of Envir...
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NOAA’s Joint Polar Satellite System and the NPP Satellite: Delivering the Next Generation of Environmental Earth Observations Mitch Goldberg, JPSS Program Scientist (JPSS NOAA ) James Gleason, JPSS Project Scientist (JPSS NASA) Robert Murphy, Carl Hoffman (JPSS DPA)

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NOAA’s Joint Polar Satellite System and the NPP Satellite: Delivering the Next Generation of Environmental Earth Observations

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Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

NOAA’s Joint Polar Satellite System and the NPP Satellite: Delivering the Next Generation of Environmental Earth Observations

Mitch Goldberg, JPSS Program Scientist (JPSS NOAA)

James Gleason, JPSS Project Scientist (JPSS NASA)

Robert Murphy, Carl Hoffman (JPSS DPA)

John Furgerson, JPSS User Liaison (JPSS NOAA)


Presidential decision 2 feb 2010

PRESIDENTIAL DECISION 2 FEB 2010

  • NPOESS Program Terminated 30 Sep 2010

    • NOAA assigned 1330 orbit – Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS)

    • DoD assigned 0530 orbit – Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS)

    • EUMETSAT MetOp will provide 0930 orbit

    • Common Ground System (GCS) using systems developed for NPOESS

      • Command, Communications & Control (C3S )

      • Data production system (IDPS)

      • Globally Distributed Receptor Network (DRN)

      • Process both JPSS and DWSS data

    • Advanced sensors developed for NPOESS will be continued

      • VIIRS (MODIS heritage)

      • CrIS (AIRS/IASI heritage)

      • OMPS (OMI/TOMS heritage)

      • ATMS (AMSU heritage)

      • CERES/ERBS


Jpss program overview

JPSS Program Overview

  • Benefits

  • Maintains continuity of weather/climate observations and critical environmental data from the polar orbit

  • NOAA – JPSS provides improved continuity for POES

    • HIRS > CrIS (T & WV Atmos. Profiles)

    • AMSU/MHS > ATMS

    • AVHRR > VIIRS (Imagery, Cloud Mask, SST)

    • SBUV2 > OMPS (Total Ozone)

  • NASA – JPSS provides continuity for EOS

    • AIRS > CrIS

    • AMSU > ATMS

    • MODIS > VIIRS

    • OMI > OMPS

    • AMSR-E > AMSR2 (JAXA-GCOM-W)

JPSS-1 Satellite

(NPP-clone)


Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

Continuity of Polar Operational Satellites


Jpss program plans

JPSS PROGRAM PLANS

  • NASA will procure and integrate JPSS for NOAA

    • POES / GOES model

  • Algorithm development and Cal/Val led by NOAA

  • NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) will be completed as planned

    • Five Sensors (VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, OMPS, CERES)

    • NPP will use C3S and IDPS developed for NPOESS

  • NOAA/NASA will develop JPSS series for 1330 Orbit

  • JPSS-1 will be NPP Clone

    • SARSAT and A/DCS will likely fly on separate satellite

    • JPSS-1 will use Distributed Receptor Network

  • JPSS-2 and beyond will be competed

  • DoD plans for DWSS being developed

    • DoD will launch remaining inventory of DMSP in the interim


Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

CLASS

SDS

Data Delivery

Data Delivery

Data Delivery

Data Delivery

DataManagement

DataManagement

DataManagement

DataManagement

JPSS System Architecture

Weather / Climate Products

Supporting Space

TDRSS

GPS

TDRSS

Space

Segment

JPSS1330

DWSS1730

LaunchSupportSegment

NPOESSPreparatoryProject

Offline Support

  • Algorithm Support

  • Integrated Support Facility

  • Calibration/Validation

EELV

Weather Centrals

NAVO

FNMOC

AFWA

NESDIS

AlternateMMC

Svalbard

Primary T&C

VAFB

FNMOC

Interface Data Processing Segment

AFWA

NESDIS

NAVO

DQM

White SandsComplex

LRD

HRD

MissionManagementCenter (MMC)

Processing

Processing

Processing

Processing

Processing

Field Terminal Segment

15 Globally Distributed Receptor sitesInterconnected by Commercial Fiber

Ingest

Ingest

Ingest

Ingest

Mission Data

Command, Control & Communication Segment


Direct readout stations using xband

Direct Readout Stations using Xband


Npp spacecraft jpss 1 concept

NPP Spacecraft(JPSS-1 Concept )

VIIRS

CrIS

ATMS

OMPS

CERES


Npp jpss 1 sensors

NPP/JPSS-1 SENSORS

Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)

Raytheon

Cross-track Infrared Sounder

(CrIS)

ITT Corporation

Cloud and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES)

(FM5 for NPP)

Northrop Grumman

Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS)

Northrop Grumman

Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite

(OMPS)

Ball Aerospace


Jpss l1rd defined environmental data records edrs

JPSS L1RD Defined Environmental Data Records (EDRS)

MIS (17 - TBR)

VIIRS (22)

CLOUD LIQUID WATER

PRECIPITATION TYPE/RATE

PRECIPITABLE WATER

SEA SURFACE WINDS (1)

CLOUD ICE WATER PATH

SEA SURFACE WIND STRESS

TOTAL WATER CONTENT

SOIL MOISTURE

IMAGERY

SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION

SNOW COVER/DEPTH

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE

LAND SURFACE TEMP

SURFACE TYPE

ALBEDO (SURFACE)

CLOUD BASE HEIGHT

CLOUD COVER/LAYERS

CLOUD EFFECTIVE PART SIZE

CLOUD OPTICAL THICKNESS

CLOUD TOP HEIGHT

CLOUD TOP PRESSURE

CLOUD TOP TEMPERATURE

ICE SURFACE TEMPERATURE

NET HEAT FLUX

OCEAN COLOR/CHLOROPHYLL

SUSPENDED MATTER

VEGETATION INDEX

AEROSOL OPTICAL THICKNESS

AEROSOL PARTICLE SIZE

ACTIVE FIRES

IMAGERY

SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION

SNOW COVER

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE

LAND SURFACE TEMP

SURFACE TYPE

ATM VERT MOIST PROFILE

ATM VERT TEMP PROFILE

PRESSURE (SURFACE/PROFILE)

CrIS/ATMS (3)

ATM VERT MOIST PROFILE

ATM VERT TEMP PROFILE

PRESSURE (SURFACE/PROFILE)

GCOM AMSR-2

(11)

OMPS (2)

CLOUD LIQUID WATER

PRECIPITATION TYPE/RATE

PRECIPITABLE WATER

SEA SURFACE WINDS SPEED

SOIL MOISTURE

SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT

IMAGERY

SEA ICE CHARACTERIZATION

SNOW COVER/DEPTH

SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE

SURFACE TYPE

SEM-N (5)

O3 TOTAL COLUMN

O3 NADIR PROFILE

CERES (4)

VIIRS (22)

AURORAL BOUNDARY

AURORAL ENERGY DEPOSITION

ENERGETIC IONS

MED ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES

SUPRA-THERMAL THRU AE PARTICLES

DOWN LW RADIATION (SFC)

DOWN SW RADIATION (SFC)

NET SOLAR RADIATION (TOA)

OUTGOING LW RADIATION (TOA)

TSIS (1)

SARR &

SARP

SOLAR IRRADIANCE

A-DCS

EDRs with Key Performance Parameters

KEY

Notes:

(1) Delivered as two MIS products – Speed (Key EDR) and Direction

JPSS-1

GCOM

DWSS

JPSS Program

(Host TBD)

PSE v1 2/28/11


Cris overview

CrIS Overview

  • The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a key sensor

    • Fourier Transform Spectrometer providing high resolution IR spectra:

    • Fields of Regard each 3 x 3 FOVs

    • Photovoltaic Detectors in all 3 bands

    • 4-Stage Passive Detector Cooler

    • 14 km nadir spatial resolution

    • 2200 km swath width

    • On-board internal calibration target

  • Science pioneer: AIRS on EOS Aqua, IASI on METOP-A

  • Supplier: ITT Industries

  • Key subcontractors:

    • ABB Bomem, Interferometer, ICT

    • DRS, detectors

    • AER, EDR algorithm


Nedn during npp spacecraft self compatibility test

NEdN During NPP Spacecraft Self Compatibility Test

The reaction wheels were being exercised during this period


Advanced technology microwave sounder northrop grumman electronic systems

Advanced Technology Microwave SounderNorthrop Grumman Electronic Systems

Description

  • Purpose: In conjunction with CrIS, global observations of temperature and moisture profiles at high temporal resolution (~ daily).

  • Predecessor Instruments: AMSU A1 / A2, MHS

  • Approach: Scanning passive microwave radiometer

  • 22 channels (23GHz - 183GHz)

  • Swath width: 2300 km

  • Co-registration: with CrIS


Microwave and infrared earth spectra

Microwave and Infrared Earth Spectra

The NPOESS Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) as a Companion to the New Generation AIRS/AMSU and IASI/AMSU Sounder Suites

Gail A. Bingham, Utah State Univ./SDL, Logan, UT; and N. S. Pougatchev, M. P. Esplin, W. J. Blackwell, and C. D. Barnet

http://ams.confex.com/ams/90annual/techprogram/paper_163196.htm


Sounding strategy in cloudy scenes

Sounding Strategy in Cloudy Scenes

Co-locate infrared and microwave instruments

.

  • Sounding is performed on 50 km a field of regard (FOR)

  • FOR is currently defined by the size of the microwave sounder footprint

  • IASI/AMSU has 4 IR FOV’s per FOR

  • AIRS/AMSU & CrIS/ATMS have 9 IR FOV’s per FOR

  • ATMS is spatially over-sampled can emulate an AMSU FOV

Le Marshallet al., 2006

AIRS, IASI, and CrIS all acquire 324,000 FOR’s per day!


Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

Improved Soundings

AIRS provides significant improvements in temperature and moisture soundings over older generation instruments.

Vertical resolution has improved from 3 – 6 km to 1 – 2 km.

NOAA/NESDIS


Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

CriS and ATMS provide continuity of essential atmospheric sounding information for weather forecasting

Hyperspectral Infrared Sounders (CrIS) and Advanced Microwave Sounders (ATMS) are the top two contributors for reducing forecast errors

Forecast error reduction contribution (%)


Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

Afternoon orbit has large impact on forecasting

major weather events

  • 6 Feb: Models without PM data under-forecasted snow totals:

    • Operational forecast shows paralyzing event

    • Data Denial

      • Did not forecast paralyzing event in DC— at least 10” too low at Day 5

      • Low confidence in extreme snowfall at this point

    • Future errors of this scale could result in:

      • Aircraft and airline passengers stranded

      • Ground commerce halted with no mitigation plans

      • Population unprepared for paralyzing snow-depth

Forecast Period: 5 Feb (am) – 6 Feb (am)

15-22”

Actual

15-18”

Forecast

Observed

27 Km Operational NWP

Wash DC 5-day Forecast:

- With Data: Historical, paralyzing event

- Data Denial: Significant; but not

paralyzing

Data Denial NWP

7-10”

Forecast


Visible infrared imaging radiometer suite raytheon sas el segundo ca

Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer SuiteRaytheon SAS El Segundo, Ca

Description

  • Purpose: Global observations of land, ocean, & atmosphere parameters at high temporal resolution (~ daily)

  • Predecessor Instruments: AVHRR, OLS, MODIS, SeaWiFS

  • Approach: Multi-spectral scanning radiometer (22 bands between 0.4 µm and 12 µm) 12-bit quantization

  • Swath width: 3000 km

  • Spatial Resolution

  • 16 bands at 750m

  • 5 bands at 325m

  • DNB

VIIRS on NPP


Viirs data products

VIIRS Data Products

  • Imagery & Cloud

  • Imagery

  • Cloud Mask [IP]

  • Cloud Optical Thickness

  • Cloud Effective Particle Size Parameter

  • Cloud Top Parameters

  • Cloud Base Height

  • Cloud Cover/Layers

  • Aerosol

  • Aerosol Optical Thickness

  • Aerosol Particle Size Parameter

  • Suspended Matter

Land

  • Active Fire

  • Land Surface Albedo

  • Land Surface Temperature Ice Surface Temperature

  • Sea Ice Characterization

  • Snow Cover/Depth

  • Vegetation Index

  • Surface Type

    Ocean

  • Sea Surface Temperature

  • Ocean Color/Chlorophyll


Viirs edge of scan spatial resolution is significantly improved over avhrr

VIIRS Edge of Scan Spatial Resolution is significantly improved over AVHRR

AVHRR

VIIRS


Viirs prelaunch performance npp f1 bands and snr nedt

VIIRS Prelaunch Performance(NPP F1 Bands and SNR/NEDT)

Courtesy of H. Oudrari


Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

In addition to clouds and SST, VIIRS provides continuity of essential environmental monitoring from AVHRR and MODIS

Biosphere monitoring:

Vegetation and Ocean Color

Fire monitoring and mapping

Aerosols for air quality and aviation safety

Oil slick monitoring and mapping

Volcanic Ash


Dnb for night time clouds using lunar illumination

DNB for night time clouds using lunar illumination


Noaa s vegetation health system

NOAA’s Vegetation Health System

Central USAHealthy vegetationImpact: Good crops

KazakhstanVegetation stressImpact: Bad crops

Western USA Vegetation stressImpact: Fire

ArgentinaVegetation StressImpact: Drought

Southern AfricaHealthy VegetationImpact: Malaria

30 Years of AVHRR

Healthy Vegetation

Impact: Malaria

Felix Kogan, NESDIS


Coral bleaching

Coral Bleaching

50km Nighttime Sea Surface Temperature (SST)

SST Anomaly

Coral –

specific

HotSpot

Degree Heating Week

Bleaching Alert Areas

http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov


Ozone mapping profiler suite ball aerospace and technologies corp

Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.

Description

  • Purpose: Monitors the total column and vertical profile of ozone

  • Predecessor Instruments: TOMS, SBUV, GOME, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY

  • Approach: Nadir and limb push broom CCD spectrometers

  • Swath width: 2600 km


Omps provides continuity of essential ozone products and applications

OMPS provides continuity of essential ozone products and applications

Monitoring ozone hole and recovering of ozone due to the Montreal Protocol for eliminating Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

Used in NWS UV Index forecast to allow public to avoid overexposure to UV radiation


Ceres instrument overview

CERES Instrument Overview

CERES scanning radiometer measuring three spectral bands at TOA

  • Total (0.3 to >50 m)

  • Shortwave (0.3 to 5.0m)

  • Longwave (5 to 50m)

    Operations, Data Processing, Products, and Science are a continuation of experience developed on

  • TRMM (1), EOS Terra (2), EOS Aqua (2), in I&T on NPP

21 in.

18 in.

22 in.

Critical Resource Margins

Primary CERES Climate Data Records

Reflected

Solar

Energy

Emitted

Thermal

Energy


Earth radiation budget

Earth Radiation Budget

CERES Shortwave

TSIS

CERES Longwave

From IPCC AR4 FAQ


Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

JPSS Continues Data Time Series

Year

Measurement System

Conventional OperationsEOS Technology JumpResearch Quality Operations


Noaa s joint polar satellite system and the npp satellite delivering the next generation of environmental earth observations

MSU Tropospheric Temperature Trends

Zou et al., JGR-Atm, 111 (D19): D19114 OCT 14 2006

ATMS is better calibrated

and satellite does not drift


Overview of amsr2 instrument on gcom

Overview of AMSR2 instrument on GCOM

Deployable main reflector system with 2.0m diameter.

Frequency channel set is identical to that of AMSR-E except 7.3GHz channel for RFI mitigation.

2-point external calibration with the improved HTS (hot-load).

Deployed

Stowed


Overview of amsr2 edrs

Overview of AMSR2EDRs

Cloud liquid

water

Water vapor

Snow water

equivalent

Soil moisture

Precipitation

Sea surface

temperature

Sea surface

Wind vector

Sea ice concentration


Conclusions

Conclusions

JPSS Mission will provide:

Input Observations for Weather Forecast Models

CrIS, ATMS, VIIRS, OMPS & GCOM

Short term Environmental Observations

(Events)

VIIRS, OMPS, CrIS, ATMS & GCOM

Long term Environmental Observations

(Climate Change Detection)

CERES, TSIS, VIIRS, OMPS, CrIS, ATMS & GCOM

User Engagement is critical for ultimate mission success


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