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DNA/RNA . DNA. RNA. Watson & Crick. Maurice Wilkins & Rosalind Franklin. Rosalind Franklin. Chargaff’s Rule of Ratios. From analytic studies Edwin Chargaff (1952) determined that the: Amount of Adenine always equals the amount of Thymine

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dna rna
DNA/RNA

DNA

RNA

chargaff s rule of ratios
Chargaff’s Rule of Ratios

From analytic studies Edwin Chargaff (1952) determined that the:

  • Amount of Adenine always equals the amount of Thymine
  • Amount of Cytosine always equals the amount of Guanine
  • The amount of A-T is independent of the amount of C-G

Erwin Chargaff, an American biochemist

the sugar
The sugar

Deoxyribose

The phosphate

the nitrogenous bases
The nitrogenous bases

The Purines

Why are these called nitrogenous bases?

the nitrogenous bases1
The nitrogenous bases

The Pyrimidines

How are the pyrimidines different from the purines?

the double helix
The Double Helix
  • The overall shape of DNA is described as a double helix (a twisted ladder).
  • What force holds the two strands together?
dna nucleotides
 DNA Nucleotides

Section 12-1

Purines

Pyrimidines

Adenine

Guanine

Cytosine

Thymine

Phosphate group

Deoxyribose

dna replication
DNA Replication
  • ANIMATION
  • ANIMATION DETAILED
enzymes involved in dna replication
Enzymes involved in DNA replication
  • Helicase – opens the double helix to allow for replication
  • DNA polymerase – reads the original DNA strand and lays down complementary bases
  • Ligase – glues the newly formed DNA together
dna replication practice
DNA replication practice
  • You are DNA polymerase. Helicase has opened the DNA strand – read each side and produce the complementary copies.

__________________________________

A G G T A A C C G G T T A C G A T T A T

T C C A T T G G C C A A T G C T A A T A

A G G T A A C C G G T T A C G A T T A T

T C C A T T G G C C A A T G C T A A T A

12 2 part 2 the structure of dna
12.2 (part 2) - The Structure of DNA
  • Solving the Structure of DNA
  • Three scientists who worked to solve the structure of DNA were Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and Francis Crick. Franklin found clues. These clues helped Watson and Crick explain the structure and properties of DNA.
12 2 part 2 the structure of dna1
12.2 (part 2) - The Structure of DNA
  • A Venn diagram is made up of overlapping circles. It is a useful tool for comparing two or even three topics. In the space where the circles overlap, write the features that the topics share. In the space where the circles do not overlap, write the features that are unique to each topic.
  • built a three-dimensional model of DNA
  • helped determine the shape of a DNA molecule
  • photographed DNA using X-ray diffraction
  • showed that DNA is a double helix
  • studied DNA’s structure and properties
12 2 part 2 the structure of dna2
12.2 (part 2) - The Structure of DNA
  • Complete the Venn diagram using phrasesfrom the word box.

- studied DNA’s structure and properties

helped determine the shape of a DNA molecule

showed that DNA is a double helix

photographed DNA using X-ray diffraction

built a three-dimensional model of DNA

how are dna and rna similar
How are DNA and RNA similar?
  • DNA is composed of nucleotides and RNA is composed of nucleotides
in your notes to practice base pairing rules again
IN YOUR NOTES TO PRACTICE BASE PAIRING RULES AGAIN

__________________________________

A G T C C G T T A G T

T C A G G C A A T C A

let s review
Let’s Review
  • DNA Structure is a _____ ______
  • DNA is composed of __________What are four that make up DNA?
    • A
    • T
    • C
    • G
how are dna and rna different
How are DNA and RNA different?
  • DNA…
    • Nucleotides = deoxyribose sugar
    • Double helix structure
    • Stays inside nucleus
  • RNA…
    • Nuleotides = ribose sugar
    • Single-strand structure
    • Located both inside and outside of nucleus
    • Uracil instead of thymine
transcription
Transcription
  • mRNA – stands for messenger RNA
    • it is the copy of the DNA message for making a protein
    • Occurs in the nucleus
    • Promoter region on DNA marks where transcription should start and terminator region marks where it should stop
slide27
mRNA
  • Transcribes DNA message and carries it to ribosome
  • RNA polymerse is the enzyme that produces it

CLICK ON PICTURE FOR ANIMATION ON TRANSCRIPTION

slide28
mRNA
  • No T (thymine) so when it reads the nucleotide A on DNA it matches it with ____?
protein synthesis transcription and translation
Protein Synthesis= transcription and translation
  • DNA contains all the information for your traits – the genes
  • These genes are blueprints and need to remain safe – kept inside the nucleus
  • Copies can be made though – a messenger
genotype phenotype
Genotype  Phenotype

DNA mRNA tRNA PROTEIN

Transcription Translation

slide31
tRNA
  • Once mRNA is made it attaches to a ribosome
  • tRNA = transfer RNA and they carry amino acids
  • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins (remember?)
translation
Translation
  • Ribosomes are the site of protein synthesis
  • Click here to see mRNA and tRNA work together at that ribosome to build a protein
figure 12 7 structure of dna
Figure 12–7 Structure of DNA

Section 12-1

Nucleotide

Hydrogen bonds

Sugar-phosphate backbone

Key

Adenine (A)

Thymine (T)

Cytosine (C)

Guanine (G)

figure 12 14 transcription
Figure 12–14 Transcription

Section 12-3

Adenine (DNA and RNA)

Cystosine (DNA and RNA)

Guanine(DNA and RNA)

Thymine (DNA only)

Uracil (RNA only)

RNApolymerase

DNA

RNA

do now begin rna concept map
Do Now Begin - RNA Concept Map

can be

also called

which functions to

also called

which functions to

also called

which functions to

from

to

to make up

rna concept map

DNA

RNA Concept Map

RNA

can be

mRNA

rRNA

tRNA

also called

which functions to

also called

which functions to

also called

which functions to

Brings amino acids

to the ribosome

Messenger RNA

Carry instructions

Ribosomal RNA

Combine with

protein

Transfer RNA

from

to

to make up

Ribosomes

Ribosomes

chromosomal mutations
 Chromosomal Mutations

Deletion

Duplication

Inversion

Translocation

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