Earth-Sun Relationships. Insolation, Day-Night and Seasons. Cosmic Connections: Earth, Solar System and Beyond 2. The Sun and Solar Radiation: Insolation , Solar Energy Inclinations and Movements of Earth: Day-Night, Length of Day, Seasons, Latitudinal Zones.
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Insolation, Day-Night and Seasons
What is the Earth’s relationships with the Sun and other heavenly bodies?
How do phenomena like day and night, seasonal variations, climatic variations, and certain atmospheric anomalies happen?
and metals – Terrestrial Planets
Outer planets are made of gases
and ices – Gas Giants
Our solar system also includes about 138 satellites (like our moon),
numerous asteroids, as well as comets and meteors (“shooting stars”
and meteorites) [Does our moon have any impact on our environment?]
The Sun and Its Energy
Solar Flares (as well as other prominences and coronal mass ejections) occur in the region of sunspots, sending out energized, charged particles at great speeds toward the earth. . .
Earth appears as an oblate
spheroid to the Sun’s
parallel rays; the geoid
Effects of Earth’s Sphericity
and Plane of Ecliptic
Earth’s axis is tilted about 23.5˚ from perpendicular to Plane of Ecliptic;
Earth’s axis remains in a fixed alignment with Polaris directly
overhead, throughout the year, as it revolves about the Sun
The Orbit of the earth is an elliptical path along the Plane of Ecliptic Average orbital length = 940,416,480 km
Closest approach to the Sun = 147 million km, Perihelion (January 3)
Farthest distance from the Sun = 152 million km, Aphelion (July 4)
A: Summer Solstice*
B: Autumnal Equinox
C: Winter Solstice*
D: Vernal Equinox
*During the 2 Solstices,
the situations are reversed in the Southern Hemisphere
striking various latitudes
during an equinox
The Sun’s Rays in
Summer (b) and Winter (c)