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Short Story Terms. Learn them. Love them. Live them. Take a test on them next week. What is a Short Story?. A short story is: a brief work of fiction where, usually, the main character faces a conflict that is worked out in the plot of the story. Character.

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short story terms

Short Story Terms

Learn them. Love them. Live them.

Take a test on them next week.

what is a short story
What is a Short Story?
  • A short story is: a brief work of fiction where, usually, the main character faces a conflict that is worked out in the plot of the story
character
Character
  • Character – a person in a story, poem, or play
  • Types of Character:
    • Round – Fully-developed, has many different character traits
    • Flat – Stereotyped, one-dimensional, few traits
    • Static – Does not change
    • Dynamic – Changes as a result of the story\'s events
characterization
Characterization
  • How the author develops the characters, especially the main character
  • This is done through:
    • what the character does or says
    • what others say of and to the character
    • author’s word choice when describing the character
characterization1
Characterization
  • Direct characterization
    • The author directly states what the character’s personality is like. Example: Joe was cruel, not ever kind.
  • Indirect characterization
    • Showing a character’s personality through his/her actions, thoughts, feelings, words, appearance, or through what other characters say about him or her.
slide6

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

protagonist
Protagonist
  • Main character of the story
    • the most important character
    • changes and grows because of experiences in the story
antagonist
Antagonist
  • A major character who opposes the protagonist
  • Types of antagonists:
    • people
    • nature
    • society
slide9

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

conflict
Conflict
  • A struggle between two opposing forces
  • Types
    • Internal – takes place in a character’s own mind
      • Man (Woman) vs. Himself (Herself)
    • External – a character struggles against an outside force
      • Man vs. Man
      • Man vs. Nature
      • Man vs. technology, progress
      • Man vs. Society
      • Man vs. Supernatural
slide11

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

what is the plot
What is the Plot?
  • Plot: Series of related events that make up a story
exposition
Exposition
  • Section that introduces characters, the setting, and conflicts
setting
Setting
  • The time and place of the story’s action
rising action
Rising Action
  • Consists of a series of complications.
  • These occur when the main characters take action to resolve their problems and are met with further problems:
    • Fear
    • Hostility
    • Threatening situation
slide16

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

climax
Climax
  • The turning point in the story: the high point of interest and suspense

Climax

Rising Action or Complications

Falling Action

falling action
Falling Action
  • All events following the climax or turning point in the story. These events are a result of the action taken at the climax.
resolution
Resolution
  • (Denouement)
  • The end of the central conflict: it shows how the situation turns out and ties up loose ends
slide20

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

When Vacuum Cleaners Go Bad

point of view
Point of View
  • Vantage point from which the writer tells the story.
    • First person – One of the characters is actually telling the story using the pronoun “I”
    • Third person – Centers on one character’s thoughts and actions
    • Omniscient – All-knowing narrator - can center on the thoughts any actions of any and all characters
theme
Theme
  • The central message or insight into life revealed through a literary work
  • The “main idea” of the story
slide23

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

flashback
Flashback
  • The present scene in the story is interrupted to flash backward and tell what happened in an earlier time
foreshadowing
Foreshadowing
  • Clues the writer puts in the story to give the reader a hint of what is to come
symbol
Symbol
  • An object, person, or event that functions as itself, but also stands for something more than itself
  • Example: a scale’s function is to weigh things…

but they are also a symbol

of our justice system…

slide27

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

figurative language
Figurative Language
  • Involves some imaginative comparison between two unlike things
    • Simile – comparing two unlike things using “like” or “as”
        • “Life is like a box of chocolates...”
    • Metaphor – comparing two unlike things (not using “like” or “as”)
        • “Life is a highway...” ♫♪
        • “Baby, you’re a firework…” ♪♫♪
figurative language1
Figurative Language
  • Personification – Giving human qualities to non-human things
      • “The wind howled.”
      • “Fate was laughing at me.”
slide30

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

irony
Irony
  • A contrast between expectation and reality
    • Example: Boo Radley winds up being a savior to the kids rather than a scary ghost-man
irony1
Irony
  • Verbal Irony – saying one thing but meaning something completely different
      • Calling a clumsy basketball player “Michael Jordan”
  • Situational Irony – A contradiction between what we expect to happen and what really does happen
  • Dramatic Irony – occurs when the reader knows something important that the characters do not know
slide33

AND NOW:

Time Out for a Random bit of humor or strangeness:

allusion
Allusion
  • Reference to a statement, person, place, or event from:
    • Literature
    • History
    • Religion
    • Mythology
    • Politics
    • Sports
suspense
Suspense
  • Uncertainty or anxiety the reader feels about what is going to happen next in a story
suspension of disbelief
Suspension of Disbelief
  • When the reader knows the events or situations could never really happen, but he or she just “goes with it” in order to enjoy the story
hyperbole
Hyperbole
  • An exaggeration, often an extreme one
sensory imagery
Sensory Imagery
  • Language that appeals to the senses:
    • Touch
    • Taste
    • Sight
    • Sound
    • Smell

Example:

Creating a picture in the reader’s mind through description

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