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ART HISTORY 2051. Baroque: Italy & Spain. Baroque. painting: Italy Caravaggio (1571-1610) style: “realist” tendency rejection of Mannerism interest in surface textures & appearances human figure not prettified biography: bohemian in permanent revolt against authority

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art history 2051

ART HISTORY 2051

Baroque: Italy & Spain

baroque
Baroque
  • painting: Italy
    • Caravaggio (1571-1610)
      • style: “realist” tendency
        • rejection of Mannerism
        • interest in surface textures & appearances
        • human figure not prettified
      • biography: bohemian
        • in permanent revolt against authority
        • fled Rome because charged w/ manslaughter
        • died of malaria
baroque3
Caravaggio (cont.)

Bacchus (c. 1595)

theme: mythological

little reminiscent of god of antiquity

drowsy

soft mouth

dainty gesture

mood: subjective

depth: suggested by foreshortening

color: rejection of Venetian (re: Titian)

Baroque
baroque7
Baroque
  • painting: Italy (cont.)
    • Artemisia Gentileschi (1563-1639)
      • style: Caravaggesque
      • scenes of feminine heroicism & revenge
      • biography: horrific life translated into themes of rape & torture
        • raped by her drawing teacher, Tassi, who then refused to marry her
        • Gentileschi’s father sued Tassi
        • Artemisia tortured w/ thumbscrews to test her veracity before Tassi was convicted
baroque10
Baroque
  • painting: Italy (cont.)
    • style: “Classicizing” tendency
    • principal artists:
      • Carracci (1560-1609)
      • Reni (1575-1642)
    • characteristics:
      • clarity, unity & decorum
      • figures: handsome faces & muscular bodies
      • composition: recalls Classical relief sculpture
baroque14
Baroque
  • painting: Italy (cont.)
    • style: “Dynamic” tendency (a.k.a. “High Baroque”)
      • perspective: architectural
      • technique: pictorial illusionism (e.g., painted framework)
      • intense light & color
      • composition: strong diagonals
      • figures: idealized & vigorous in action
    • principal artists:
      • Guercino (1591-1666)
      • Cortona (1596-1669)
baroque18
Baroque
  • sculpture: Italy
    • Bernini (1598-1680)
      • style: “Dynamic” tendencies
      • influences: Hellenistic antiquity
      • patrons: papacy in Rome
      • Baroque qualities:
        • spatial order: active vs. self-contained
        • realism of detail & differentiation of texture
        • drapery: abstract play of folds & crevasses
        • attempting pictorial effects traditionally outside sculpture’s domain
baroque24
Baroque
  • painting: Spain
    • Velázquez (1599-1660)
      • style: “Realist” tendency (re: Caravaggio)
        • color: Venetian richness (re: Titian)
        • brushwork: fluid & painterly
        • light: fascination w/ depicting fleeting effects
      • themes:
        • genre scenes
        • mythological
        • royal portraits (political & religious)
image index
IMAGE INDEX
  • Slide 3: CARAVAGGIO. Bacchus (c. 1597), Oil on canvas, 95 x 85 cm., Uffizi Gallery, Florence.
  • Slide 4: Comparison between TITIAN’s Bacchanal (1518) and CARAVAGGIO’s Bacchus (c. 1597).
  • Slide 5: CARAVAGGIO. Supper at Emmaus (c. 1600-1601), Oil on canvas, 139 x 195 cm., National Gallery, London.
  • Slide 6: CARAVAGGIO. The Calling of Saint Matthew (1599-1600), Oil on canvas, 10\' 7 1/2" X 11\' 2”, Contarelli Chapel, San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome.
image index36
IMAGE INDEX
  • Slide 8: GENTILESCHI, Artemisia. Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes (c. 1625), Oil on canvas, 6’1/2” x 4’7”, The Detroit Institute of Arts.
  • Slide 9: Comparison between GENTILESCHI’s Judith (c. 1625) and CARAVAGGIO’S Judith Beheading Holofernes (c. 1598), Oil on canvas, 144 x 195 cm., Galleria Nazionale dell\'Arte Antica, Rome.
  • Slide 11: CARACCI, Anibale. Ceiling fresco (1597- 1601). Gallery, Palazzo Farnese, Rome.
image index37
IMAGE INDEX
  • Slide 12: CARRACCI, Annibale. Venus and Anchises (detail from Slide 11).
  • Slide 13: RENI, Guido. Aurora (1613), Ceiling fresco, Casino Rospigliosi, Rome.
  • Slide 15: GUERCINO. Aurora (1621-23), Ceiling fresco. Villa Ludovisi, Rome.
  • Slide 16: Comparison between the Classicizing tendency of RENI’s Aurora (1613) and the High Baroque tendency of GUERCINO’s Aurora (1621-23).
image index38
IMAGE INDEX
  • Slide 17: Detail of CORTONA’s Glorification of the Reign of Urban VIII (1633-39), Portion of ceiling fresco, Palazzo Barberini, Rome.
  • Slide 19: BERNINI, David (c. 1625), Marble, height 170 cm., Galleria Borghese, Rome.
  • Slide 20: Comparison between Classical Greek Discuss Thrower (c. 450 BCE) and BERNINI’s Baroque David (c. 1625).
  • Slide 21: Comparison between BERNINI’s Baroque David (c. 1625) and MICHELANGELO’s High Renaissance David (c. 1500).
image index39
IMAGE INDEX
  • Slide 22: BERNINI, Gianlorenzo. Bust of Scipione Borghese (1632), Marble, height 30 3/4”, Borghese Gallery, Rome.
  • Slide 23: BERNINI. The Ecstasy of Saint Therese (1647-52), Marble, Cappella Cornaro, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome.
  • Slide 25: VELÁZQUEZ, Diego. The Waterseller of Seville (c. 1619), Oil on canvas, 42 x 31 7/8”, Wellington Museum, London.
  • Slide 26: VELÁZQUEZ, Diego. Los Borrachos (1628), Oil on canvas, Museo del Prado, Madrid.
image index40
IMAGE INDEX
  • Slide 27: Comparison between VELÁZQUEZ’s Los Borrachos (1628) and CARAVAGGIO’s Bacchus (1597).
  • Slide 28: VELÁZQUEZ, Diego. Venus with a Mirror (c. 1650), Oil on canvas, 122.5 x 177 cm., National Gallery, London.
  • Slide 29: Comparison between VELÁZQUEZ’s Venus with a Mirror (c. 1650) and TITIAN’s The Venus of Urbino (1538).
  • Slide 30: VELÁZQUEZ, Diego. Pope Innocent X (1650), Oil on canvas, 55 x 45 1/4”, Galleria Doria Pamphili, Rome.
image index41
IMAGE INDEX
  • Slide 31: Comparison between VELÁZQUEZ’s Pope Innocent X (1650) and TITIAN’s Pope Paul III and His Grandsons (1546).
  • Slide 32: Comparison between VELÁZQUEZ’s Pope Innocent X (1650) and EL GRECO’s Portrait of Hortensio Felix Paravicino (c. 1605).
  • Slide 33: VELAZQUEZ, Diego. Las Meninas (1656), Oil on canvas, 10’ 5" x 9’ 1”, Museo del Prado, Madrid.
  • Slide 34: Details of Infanta Marguarite Therese (c. 1654), Oil on canvas, 128.5 x 100 cm., Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
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