Animal nutrition
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Animal Nutrition. Nutritional Requirements. Undernourished not enough calories Overnourished too many calories Malnourished missing one or more essential nutrients. Essential Nutrients. Essential Amino Acids Essential Fatty Acids Essential Vitamins Essential Minerals.

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Animal Nutrition

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Animal Nutrition


Nutritional Requirements

  • Undernourished

    • not enough calories

  • Overnourished

    • too many calories

  • Malnourished

    • missing one or more essential nutrients


Essential Nutrients

  • Essential Amino Acids

  • Essential Fatty Acids

  • Essential Vitamins

  • Essential Minerals


Essential Amino Acids

  • Found in proteins

    • 20 different types

  • Nine essential in humans

    • all in animal proteins

    • vegetarians need to eat grains and beans


Essential Fatty Acids

  • Unsaturated fatty acids

    • used to make phospholipids for membranes


Essential Vitamins

  • Fat Soluble

    • stored in fat

    • K, A, D, E

  • Water Soluble

    • excreted in urine

    • B complex and C


Essential Minerals

  • Inorganic nutrients

    • Calcium & Phosphorous

      • bones

    • Iron

      • anemia

    • Iodine

      • thyroid hormones

    • Sodium, Chlorine, & Potassium

      • nerve function, water regulation


Food Types

  • Heterotrophic

    • Herbivores

    • Carnivores

    • Omnivores

    • Insectivores


Feeding Adaptations

  • Suspension Feeders


Feeding Adaptations

  • Substrate Feeders


Feeding Adaptations

  • Fluid Feeders


Feeding Adaptations

  • Bulk Feeders


Intracellular Digestion

  • Inside cells

  • All animals

  • Exclusive in:

    • Protista

    • Porifera


Extracellular Digestion

  • Outside cells

  • All animals above the sponges

  • Two Types

    • Gastrovascular Cavity

    • Alimentary Canal


Gastrovascular Cavity

  • One opening

  • Found in Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes


Alimentary Canal

  • Two openings

  • Allows for specialization

    • Mouth

    • Pharynx

    • Esophagus

    • Crop

    • Gizzard

    • Stomach

    • Intestine

    • Anus


Mammalian Digestion

  • Accessory Glands

    • salivary glands

    • pancreas

    • liver (emulsification)

    • gallbladder

  • Peristalsis

  • Sphincters

  • “Food”

    • bolus

    • acid chyme

    • feces


Macromolecule Digestion


Dentition and Diet

  • Nonmammal vertebrates

  • Carnivores

    • canines (grasping)

    • incisors (tearing)

    • molars and premolars

      • (crushing and grinding)

  • Herbivores

  • Omnivores


Digestive Tracts

  • Carnivores

    • shorter digestive system

    • small cecum

  • Herbivores

    • longer digestive system

    • large cecum


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