Animal nutrition
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Animal Nutrition. Nutritional Requirements. Undernourished not enough calories Overnourished too many calories Malnourished missing one or more essential nutrients. Essential Nutrients. Essential Amino Acids Essential Fatty Acids Essential Vitamins Essential Minerals.

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Animal Nutrition

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Animal nutrition

Animal Nutrition


Nutritional requirements

Nutritional Requirements

  • Undernourished

    • not enough calories

  • Overnourished

    • too many calories

  • Malnourished

    • missing one or more essential nutrients


Essential nutrients

Essential Nutrients

  • Essential Amino Acids

  • Essential Fatty Acids

  • Essential Vitamins

  • Essential Minerals


Essential amino acids

Essential Amino Acids

  • Found in proteins

    • 20 different types

  • Nine essential in humans

    • all in animal proteins

    • vegetarians need to eat grains and beans


Essential fatty acids

Essential Fatty Acids

  • Unsaturated fatty acids

    • used to make phospholipids for membranes


Essential vitamins

Essential Vitamins

  • Fat Soluble

    • stored in fat

    • K, A, D, E

  • Water Soluble

    • excreted in urine

    • B complex and C


Essential minerals

Essential Minerals

  • Inorganic nutrients

    • Calcium & Phosphorous

      • bones

    • Iron

      • anemia

    • Iodine

      • thyroid hormones

    • Sodium, Chlorine, & Potassium

      • nerve function, water regulation


Food types

Food Types

  • Heterotrophic

    • Herbivores

    • Carnivores

    • Omnivores

    • Insectivores


Feeding adaptations

Feeding Adaptations

  • Suspension Feeders


Feeding adaptations1

Feeding Adaptations

  • Substrate Feeders


Feeding adaptations2

Feeding Adaptations

  • Fluid Feeders


Feeding adaptations3

Feeding Adaptations

  • Bulk Feeders


Intracellular digestion

Intracellular Digestion

  • Inside cells

  • All animals

  • Exclusive in:

    • Protista

    • Porifera


Extracellular digestion

Extracellular Digestion

  • Outside cells

  • All animals above the sponges

  • Two Types

    • Gastrovascular Cavity

    • Alimentary Canal


Gastrovascular cavity

Gastrovascular Cavity

  • One opening

  • Found in Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes


Alimentary canal

Alimentary Canal

  • Two openings

  • Allows for specialization

    • Mouth

    • Pharynx

    • Esophagus

    • Crop

    • Gizzard

    • Stomach

    • Intestine

    • Anus


Mammalian digestion

Mammalian Digestion

  • Accessory Glands

    • salivary glands

    • pancreas

    • liver (emulsification)

    • gallbladder

  • Peristalsis

  • Sphincters

  • “Food”

    • bolus

    • acid chyme

    • feces


Macromolecule digestion

Macromolecule Digestion


Dentition and diet

Dentition and Diet

  • Nonmammal vertebrates

  • Carnivores

    • canines (grasping)

    • incisors (tearing)

    • molars and premolars

      • (crushing and grinding)

  • Herbivores

  • Omnivores


Digestive tracts

Digestive Tracts

  • Carnivores

    • shorter digestive system

    • small cecum

  • Herbivores

    • longer digestive system

    • large cecum


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