Animal nutrition
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Animal Nutrition. Nutritional Requirements. Undernourished not enough calories Overnourished too many calories Malnourished missing one or more essential nutrients. Essential Nutrients. Essential Amino Acids Essential Fatty Acids Essential Vitamins Essential Minerals.

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Nutritional requirements
Nutritional Requirements

  • Undernourished

    • not enough calories

  • Overnourished

    • too many calories

  • Malnourished

    • missing one or more essential nutrients


Essential nutrients
Essential Nutrients

  • Essential Amino Acids

  • Essential Fatty Acids

  • Essential Vitamins

  • Essential Minerals


Essential amino acids
Essential Amino Acids

  • Found in proteins

    • 20 different types

  • Nine essential in humans

    • all in animal proteins

    • vegetarians need to eat grains and beans


Essential fatty acids
Essential Fatty Acids

  • Unsaturated fatty acids

    • used to make phospholipids for membranes


Essential vitamins
Essential Vitamins

  • Fat Soluble

    • stored in fat

    • K, A, D, E

  • Water Soluble

    • excreted in urine

    • B complex and C


Essential minerals
Essential Minerals

  • Inorganic nutrients

    • Calcium & Phosphorous

      • bones

    • Iron

      • anemia

    • Iodine

      • thyroid hormones

    • Sodium, Chlorine, & Potassium

      • nerve function, water regulation


Food types
Food Types

  • Heterotrophic

    • Herbivores

    • Carnivores

    • Omnivores

    • Insectivores


Feeding adaptations
Feeding Adaptations

  • Suspension Feeders


Feeding adaptations1
Feeding Adaptations

  • Substrate Feeders


Feeding adaptations2
Feeding Adaptations

  • Fluid Feeders


Feeding adaptations3
Feeding Adaptations

  • Bulk Feeders


Intracellular digestion
Intracellular Digestion

  • Inside cells

  • All animals

  • Exclusive in:

    • Protista

    • Porifera


Extracellular digestion
Extracellular Digestion

  • Outside cells

  • All animals above the sponges

  • Two Types

    • Gastrovascular Cavity

    • Alimentary Canal


Gastrovascular cavity
Gastrovascular Cavity

  • One opening

  • Found in Cnidaria and Platyhelminthes


Alimentary canal
Alimentary Canal

  • Two openings

  • Allows for specialization

    • Mouth

    • Pharynx

    • Esophagus

    • Crop

    • Gizzard

    • Stomach

    • Intestine

    • Anus


Mammalian digestion
Mammalian Digestion

  • Accessory Glands

    • salivary glands

    • pancreas

    • liver (emulsification)

    • gallbladder

  • Peristalsis

  • Sphincters

  • “Food”

    • bolus

    • acid chyme

    • feces



Dentition and diet
Dentition and Diet

  • Nonmammal vertebrates

  • Carnivores

    • canines (grasping)

    • incisors (tearing)

    • molars and premolars

      • (crushing and grinding)

  • Herbivores

  • Omnivores


Digestive tracts
Digestive Tracts

  • Carnivores

    • shorter digestive system

    • small cecum

  • Herbivores

    • longer digestive system

    • large cecum


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