Genital tract infections
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Genital Tract Infections. A. Alobaid, MBBS, FRCS(C), FACOG Consultant, Gynecologic Oncology Assistant professor, KSU Medical Director, Women’s Specialized Hospital King Fahad Medical City. The normal vaginal flora is predominately aerobic organisms

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Genital Tract Infections

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Genital Tract Infections

A. Alobaid, MBBS, FRCS(C), FACOG

Consultant, Gynecologic Oncology

Assistant professor, KSU

Medical Director, Women’s Specialized Hospital

King Fahad Medical City


  • The normal vaginal flora is predominately aerobic organisms

  • The most common is the H+ peroxide producing lactobacilli

  • The normal PH is <4.5

  • Normal vaginal secretions ↑ in the middle of the cycle because of ↑ in the amount of cervical mucus


Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

  • It is caused by alteration of the normal flora, with over-growth of anaerobic bacteria

  • It is triggered by ↑ PH of the vagina (intercourse, douches)

  • Recurrences are common


Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

  • Diagnosis:

  • Fishy odor (especially after intercourse)

  • Gray secretions

  • Presence of clue cells

  • PH >4.5

  • +ve whiff test (adding KOH to the vaginal secretions will give a fishy odor)


Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

  • Treatment:

  • Flagyl 500mg Po Bid for one week (95% cure)

  • Flagyl 2g PO x1 (84% cure)

  • Flagyl gel PV

  • Clindamycin cream PV

  • Clindamycin PO

  • Treatment of the partner is not recommended


Trichomonas Vaginalis

  • It is an anaerobic parasite, that exists only in trophozite form

  • 60% of patients also have BV

  • 70% of males will contract the disease with single exposure

  • Patients should be tested for other STDs (HIV, Syphilis)


Trichomonas Vaginalis

  • Diagnosis:

  • Profuse, purulent malodorous discharge

  • It may be accompanied by vulvar pruritis

  • Secretions may exudate from the vagina

  • If severe → patchy vaginal edema and strawberry cervix

  • PH >5

  • Microscopy: motile trichomands and ↑ leukocytes

  • Clue cells may if BV is present

  • Whiff test may be +ve


Trichomonas Vaginalis

  • Treatment:

  • Falgyl PO (single or multi dose)

  • Flagyl gel is not effective

  • The partner should be treated


Candidiasis

  • 75% of women will have at least once during their life

  • 45% of women will have two or more episodes/year

  • 90% of yeast infections are secondary to Candida Albican

  • Other species (glabrata, tropicalis) tend to be resistant to treatment


Candidiasis

  • Predisposing factors:

  • Antibiotics: disrupting the normal flora by ↓ lactobacilli

  • Pregnancy (↓ cell-mediated immunity)

  • Diabetes


Candidiasis

  • Diagnosis:

  • Vulvar pruritis and burning

  • The discharge vary from watery to thick cottage cheese discharge

  • Vaginal soreness and dysparunea

  • Splash dysuria

  • O/E: erythema and edema of the labia and vulva

  • The vagina may be erythematous with adherent whitish discharge

  • Cervix is normal

  • PH< 4.5budding yeast or mycelia on microscopy

  • The culture will confirm the diagnosis


Candidiasis

  • Treatment:

  • Topical Azole drugs (80-90% effective)

  • Fluconazole is equally effective (Diflucan 150mg PO x1), but symptoms will not disappear for 2-3 days

  • 1% hydrocortisone cream may be used as an adjuvant treatment for vulvar irritation

  • Chronic infections may need long-term treatment (6 months) with weekly Fluconazole


Inflammatory Vaginitis

  • Diffuse exudative discharge with epithelial cells exfoliation

  • The cause is uncertain but could be Strept

  • The treatment is with clindamycin cream

  • 30% of patients will have relapse


Atrophic Vaginitis

  • In post-menopausal women

  • May be accompanied by purulent discharge, dysparunea and post-coital bleeding

  • It is treated with topical Estrogen cream


Cervicitis

  • Neisseria Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Trachomatis infect only the glandular epithelium and are responsible for mucopurulent endocervisitis (MPC)

  • Ectocx epithelium is continuous with the vaginal epithelium, so Trichomonas, HSV and Candida may cause ectocx inflammation


Cervicitis

  • Tests for Gonorrhea (culture on Thayer- martin media) and Chlamydia (ELISA, direct IFA) should be performed


Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

  • Ascending infection, ? Up to the peritoneal cavity

  • Organisms: Chlamydia, N Gonorrhea

  • Less often: H Influenza, group A Strept, Pneumococci, E-coli


PID

  • Diagnosis: difficult because of wide variation of signs and symptoms

  • Clinical triad: fever, pelvic pain and cervical motion and adnexal tenderness

  • Cervical motion tenderness indicate peritoneal inflammation

  • Patients may or may not have mucopurulent discharge


PID


PID


Tubo-ovarian Abscess (TOA)

  • End-stage PID

  • Causes agglutination of pelvic organs (tubes, ovaries and bowel)

  • 75% of patients respond to IV antibiotics

  • Drainage may be necessary


Genital ulcer disease

  • Mostly caused by HSV or Syphilis, then chancroid, LGV, and granuloma inguinale (donovanosis)

  • Other causes: abrasions, drug eruptions, cancer and behcet’s disease


Genital ulcer disease

  • Have to R/O syphilis by serology, dark field examination or direct IF for Treponema pallidum

  • Culture for HSV


Genital ulcer disease


Genital ulcer disease

  • Still ¼ of the diagnosis is made by clinical examination only:

  • Syphilis: non-painful, min. tender ulcer, not accompanied by LAP

  • HSV: grouped vesicles mixed with ulcers with a history of similar lesions

  • Chancroid: 1-3 extremely painful ulcers with tender inguinal LAP

  • LGV: inguinal bubo without ulcers


Genital ulcer disease

  • Treatment:

  • Chancroid: Azithromycin 1gm PO x1, ceftazidime 250mg IM x1, or Erythromycin

  • Herpes: 1st episode is treated with acyclovir, this will not eradicate the infection, recurrences are common, for patients with > 6 recurrences/year → daily suppressive treatment is indicated (will not eliminate viral shedding and transmission)

  • Syphilis: Benzathine Pen G 2.4 million units IM x1 dose


Genital Warts

  • Condyloma accuminata secondary to HPV infection (usually 6&11), these are non-oncogenic types

  • Usually at areas affected by coitus (posterior fourchette)

  • 75% of partners are infected when exposed

  • Recurrences after treatment are secondary to reactivation of subclinical infection


Genital Warts


HIV

  • 20-25% of patients are women

  • 36% is secondary to heterosexual transmission

  • Median age between HIV infection and AIDS is 10 years


HIV

  • Diagnosis: by HIV1 antibody test,

    screening by ELISA, if +ve → confirm by western blot

  • 95% of the antibody is detected within 6 months of the infection

  • Patients are referred to a an infectious disease specialist for treatment

  • CD4 is the best indicator of disease progression


Thank you


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