Drug trends in washington state
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Drug Trends in Washington State __________________________________________________. WSADCP 16 th Annual Fall Conference South Center Doubletree Tukwila, Washington October 18, 2013 Steven Freng, Psy.D., MSW NW HIDTA Prevention/Treatment Manager . What is a HIDTA?.

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Drug trends in washington state

Drug Trends in Washington State__________________________________________________

WSADCP 16th Annual Fall Conference

South Center Doubletree

Tukwila, Washington

October 18, 2013

Steven Freng, Psy.D., MSW

NW HIDTA Prevention/Treatment Manager


Drug trends in washington state

What is a HIDTA?

“HIGH INTENSITY DRUG TRAFFICKING AREA”

HIDTAs are part of the national drug control strategy. They are grant programs managed by the Office of National Drug Control Policy, awarded to geographic areas that are considered to be critical centers of drug production, manufacturing, importation, distribution and/or chronic consumption.


Drug trends in washington state

Northwest HIDTA

Whatcom

San Juan

Okanogan

Pend

Orielle

Ferry

Skagit

Stevens

Island

Clallam

Snohomish

Chelan

Jefferson

Douglas

Lincoln

Spokane

Kitsap

King

Grays

Harbor

Mason

Grant

Kittitas

Pierce

Adams

Whitman

Thurston

Pacific

Lewis

Yakima

Franklin

Garfield

Wahkiakum

Benton

Cowlitz

Columbia

Skamania

WallaWalla

Asotin

Klickitat

Clark


Northwest hidta strategy combining public safety and public health approaches

Northwest HIDTA StrategyCombining Public Safety and Public Health Approaches:

ENFORCEMENT

Investigative Support

Task Force Support

PREVENTION

Community Coalition Support

Public Education & Awareness

TREATMENT

Drug Court Programs

Data Management & Evaluation


Investigative support center isc primary components

Investigative Support Center (ISC) Primary Components

  • Information Services Unit

    • Watch Center

      • Officer Safety

      • Deconfliction

  • Analytical Unit

    • Intelligence Research/Strategic Studies

    • Tactical Analysis

    • Case Support

  • Administrative Unit

    • Technical Equipment & Services, Database Management, Fiscal Management, Training


Threat indicators

Threat Indicators

“Critical Events” registered with the

NW HIDTA by 61 L.E.A.s in 1998:

  • Cocaine:128

  • Methamphetamine 79

  • Heroin 33

  • Marijuana: 27

  • Other:_6_

    273


Threat indicators1

Threat Indicators

“Critical Events” registered by 156

L.E.A.s in 2011 & 2012:

20112012

Methamphetamine1,3421,753

Marijuana1,062 615

Heroin9451,070

Cocaine807 516

Rx Opiates478 605

MDMA (Ecstasy) 129 98

Other 401380

5,1645,037


Specific drug used when first starting drug use 2011

Specific Drug Used When First Starting Drug Use, 2011

SOURCE: Adapted by CESAR from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Detailed Tables, 2012. Available online at http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2011SummNatFindDetTables/Index.aspx.


Past year initiates of specific illicit drugs persons aged 12 or older 2009

Past Year Initiates of Specific Illicit Drugs Persons Aged 12 or Older: 2009


Percentage of u s 9 12 th graders reporting past year substance abuse 2012

Percentage of U.S. 9-12th Graders Reporting Past Year Substance Abuse, 2012


Abuse dependence on illicit drugs in the past year aged 12 or older

Abuse/Dependence on Illicit Drugs in the Past Year (aged 12 or older)


Drug related e r visits dawn seattle smsa

Drug-related E-R Visits (DAWN, Seattle SMSA)

Source: DAWN Live!!!

Non-Med Use = Overmedication, Malicious poisoning, Other[Drug Abuse]


Pediatric interim care center picc 2012 statistics

Pediatric Interim Care Center (PICC)2012 Statistics

  • Methadone + 1-6 additional drugs 21

  • Opiates + 1-4 additional drugs 13

  • Methamphetamine + 1-2 additional drugs 10

  • Methadone 9

  • Heroin + 1-5 additional drugs 7

  • Methamphetamine 3

  • Cocaine 2

  • Opiate 1

  • Cocaine + 2 additional drugs 1

  • PCP + 1 additional drug 1

  • PCP _1

    69

    Opiates: 51

    Stimulants: 16


Wa state treatment admission by drug adults 2006 12

WA State Treatment Admission by DrugAdults, 2006-12


Publicly funded tx admissions wa state youth

Publicly-funded Tx AdmissionsWA State Youth


Wa state drug use drug deaths 1997 2006

WA State Drug Use/Drug Deaths, 1997-2006


Unintentional poisoning deaths wa us 1980 2006

Unintentional Poisoning DeathsWA & US, 1980-2006


Opiates

Opiates

  • Natural - Opium, morphine, codeine

  • Semi-synthetic - Heroin, Dilaudid (hydromorphone)

  • Synthetics - Oxycontin®, Percodan®, Percoset®(oxycodone, derived from morphine)

    Vicodin®, Lortab®(hydrocodone)

    Methadose®, Dolophine®(methadone) Darvon®(propoxyphene)

    Demerol®(meperidine)

    Duagesic®(fentanyl)


Heroin

Heroin

  • Mexican “Black Tar” is predominant; very little South American (white powder) is said to be available; no S.E. or S.W. Asian is known to be in the region

  • Trafficked primarily by Mexican and Central American DTOs

  • Heroin ranked 3rd in prevalence within the region

  • Heroin ranked 3rd as a regional threat

  • Price has decreased over the past several years at app. $75 per gram; purity increased concurrently, with reports of 15-20% within the region.


Wa state overview

WA State Overview

  • Heroin use, abuse and deaths are up. Increases are primarily among young adults 18-29, and are expanding geographically across much of the state.

  • Rx opiate availability, abuse and deaths have declined, but associated deaths still exceed heroin.

  • Although treatment admissions for all other substances have declined, admissions for heroin and Rx opiates increased 512% statewide among 18-29 year olds. Heroin is the #1 drug in this age group.

  • The statewide caseload for buprenorphine/Suboxone patients 18-29 years old was 2,189 in 2012.


Police evidence tested by the wsp crime lab 2001 12

Police Evidence Tested by the WSP Crime Lab, 2001-12


Prescription opiates

Prescription Opiates

  • Obtained legally by prescription; obtained illegally from friends/family (free or purchased), through multiple providers, via theft, illegitimate prescriptions, illegal Internet pharmacies

  • Now also trafficked by numerous DTOs as “part of the inventory”

  • Prescription opiates ranked 5th in prevalence within the region

  • Prescription opiates ranked 5th as a regional threat

  • Prices for illicit purchase vary: oxycodone sells for $1 per milligram


Per capita narcotics prescriptions by state

Per Capita Narcotics Prescriptions by State


Drug trends in washington state

Percentage of U.S. High School Students Reporting Past-year Substance Abuse in Addition to Past-month Marijuana Use, 2011


Drug trends in washington state

“Ma” is a pictograph of two two plants under a shelter shelter

The herb is a “liberator of sin –

good for female weakness, gout,

rheumatism, malaria, beri beri, constipation and absent mindedness”.

Chinese Emperor , 2700 B.C.


Marijuana

Marijuana

  • Wide range of sources available in Pacific NW; “domestic” now dominates the market although Canada-produced “BC Bud”, Californian, Mexican and exotic varieties are available

  • Asian-Canadian DTOs operate indoor grows in Western WA (recent Clark County case: 52 locations, 7,000 plants); Mexican DTOs operate outdoor grows in Eastern WA

  • Domestic marijuana ranked 1st in prevalence within region.

  • Domestic marijuana ranked 2nd as a regional threat.

  • Price has remained stable at app. $250/ounce; THC content has been analyzed as high as 15-20%


Drug trends in washington state

Investigative Assistance Division


Drug trends in washington state

2012 Marijuana Eradication Statistics Statewide

C A N A D A

I-5

Whatcom

1,233

San Juan

20

Pend

Oreille

Okanogan

193

20

P U G E T

SOUND

20

97/20

Skagit

759

Island

Ferry

101

Snohomish

1,503

Clallam

Stevens

Chelan

73

Douglas

273

Jefferson

97

2

I D A H O

2

Kitsap

86

Spokane

530

I-90

2

Seattle

Spokane

Grays Harbor

101

I-90

King

2,652

Lincoln

Mason

P A C I F I C

O C E A N

97/20

Grant

386/49,326

101

101

Tacoma

Kittitas

40,574

12

Pierce

Olympia

8

Whitman

170

Adams

2,412

Thurston

1,914/95

12

I-82

Pacific

Lewis

395

Franklin

35,651

Garfield

45

Yakima

12

Benton

33/6,327

I-82

Yakima

55,492

Cowlitz

52

Columbia

3,027

Tri-Cities

Skamania

Non Reported

Walla Walla

Asotin

Wahkiakum

97

1-500

I-5

Klickitat

12,688

501-1000

I-84

1001-5000

TOTAL SEIZURES

(As off February 27,2013)

Grows153

Indoor Plants10,253

Outdoor Plants205,462

Arrests105

Weapons58

O R E G O N

5001-9,999

I-84

10,000

Portland

Clark

383

Indoor/Outdoor/Hotline#s

Total Plants Seized YTD 216,010


Drug trends in washington state

2013 Marijuana Eradication Statistics Statewide


Cannabis eradication by national forest 2008

Cannabis Eradication by National Forest, 2008


Initiative 502

Initiative 502

  • Effective 12/6/12 following 56% favorable vote in general election. The LCB has until 12/1/13 to adopt implementation details.

  • Will allow individuals 21 and over to possess 1 oz. of smokable material; 16 oz. of infused product; 72 oz. of liquid infused product; paraphernalia.

  • DUI will be issued if THC blood levels exceed 5.00 nanograms.

  • WA State OFM estimated a 10% increase in consumers and consumption.

  • WA State OFM assumed a price point of $12/gram ($336/lb.).

  • 25% excise tax on production, processing and retail sale.

  • Distribution was tied to LCB stores – now must be reconfigured.


Initiative 5021

Initiative 502

  • State will produce 40 metric tons (2 million sq. ft.) per year

  • Projected market share: 25%

  • State will license producers, processors and retailers

  • Production “tiers”: less than 2,000 sq. ft.; 2-10,000 sq. ft.; 10-30,000 sq. ft.)

  • 334 retail stores will be licensed statewide (152 in municipalities, 182 “at large” in unincorporated counties)

  • Rules include provisions about:

    • Advertising (no appeal to youth i.e., toy/cartoon shapes or images)

    • Buffer between marijuana activities & places youth congregate (1,000 ft.)

    • Types of marijuana to be sold

    • Licensee requirements including security, transportation signage, hours

    • Serving size

    • Retail locations

    • Waste disposal

    • Packaging & labeling

  • To date, no rules addressing internet sales & home delivery


Initiative 5022

Initiative 502

Creates a Dedicated Marijuana Fund

Healthy Youth Survey

DBHR for prevention (evidence-based and emerging best practices) in consultation with SDRG

DOH for hotline, grants to local health departments for coordinated intervention strategies, and media campaign

UW Alcohol & Drug Abuse Institute for web-based public education materials

WSIPP for cost-benefit analysis

WSLCB for administration

UW & WSU for research on effects of marijuana

WA Basic Health Plan

OSPI Building Bridges Program

OFM report says DBHR will use money for prevention


Lessons learned dedicated funds for tobacco prevention

Lessons learned: dedicated funds for tobacco prevention

Tobacco Prevention & Control Account:

  • Tobacco taxes to fund Basic Health Plan, prevention and cessation, and other programs.

  • State initiative required that $26.24 million per year be spent on prevention and cessation.

  • In 2009, legislature diverted tobacco tax money to general fund.

  • The account no longer has funds to sustain program.

Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids: www.tobaccofreekids.org/what_we_do/state_local/tobacco_settlement/washington


Percentage of youths reporting which substance is easiest for someone their age to obtain

Percentage of Youths Reporting Which Substance is Easiest for Someone Their Age to Obtain

SOURCE: Adapted by CESAR from The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA), National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse XVII: Teens, 2012. Available online at http://www.casacolumbia.org/upload/2012/20120822teensurvey.pdf


Access at home

Access at home

With the demise of legal sanctions against use, some parents may choose to begin using marijuana, acting as an important new source of exposure for their adolescents. Parental use of marijuana in the last year is associated with their adolescent’s use during the same period.*

* Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth, American Academy of Pediatrics


Market issues

Market Issues

  • The industry will have an app. 50% tax markup in addition to general state and local sales taxes of app. 10%, as well as all costs associated with developing and operating an entirely new industry.

  • The black market is fluid, nimble and lucrative.

  • Law enforcement is likely to disengage from enforcement.

  • Marijuana prices in other regions will tempt producers to grow more than they are allowed and sell product interstate.

  • Organized crime may enter the industry to exploit the weak regulatory and enforcement apparatus.

  • The likelihood of marijuana “tourism” is very high.


State marijuana status 2013

State Marijuana Status, 2013


National overview state legislation 2013

National Overview – State Legislation 2013

  • 2 states have legalized possession

  • 20 states and D.C. have approved

    marijuana as medicine

  • 13 states have also decriminalized

    marijuana possession

  • Potential 2014 ballot measures to establish legalized status are seeking signatures in Alaska, Arizona, California and Oregon. Ballot proposals to legalize are also circulating in Arkansas, Florida, Idaho, Nebraska, Utah and Wyoming.


Saturday october 26 2013

Saturday, October 26, 2013

To find a participating location:

  • Visit TakeBackYourMeds.org/dea-events

    Previous Take Back Days in Washington State have received 53,451 pounds of unwanted medicines.

    Previous Take Back Days nationwide have received 995,185 pounds (498.5 tons).

    Municipalities and counties in 19 states have implemented programs

    The Secure Medicine Take-back Bill (SSB 5234), requiring drug producers to fund a non-profit association that would dispose of medications, was introduced during the 2013 session and was reintroduced and retained in present status by resolution.


Drug trends in washington state

Contact Information/Resources

Tel: 206.352.3603

[email protected]

Marijuana Toolkit: www.wasavp.org

“M-Files”: www.mfiles.org

ONDCP: whitehousedrugpolicy.gov


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