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Mutations. 3.29 Recall that mutation is a rare, random change in genetic material that can be inherited. 3.31 Understand that many mutations are harmful but some are neutral and a few are beneficial.

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mutations
Mutations
  • 3.29 Recall that mutation is a rare, random change in genetic material that can be inherited.
  • 3.31 Understand that many mutations are harmful but some are neutral and a few are beneficial.
  • 3.33 Understand that the incidence of mutations can be increases by exposure to ionizing radiation (e.g. gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays) and some chemical mutagens (e.g. chemicals in tobacco).
3 29 recall that mutation is a rare random change in genetic material that can be inherited
3.29 Recall that mutation is a rare, random change in genetic material that can be inherited.
  • A mutation is a change in the DNA of a cell.
  • It can happen in individual genes or in whole chromosomes.
  • Sometimes, when DNA is replicating, mistakes are made and the wrong nucleotide is used.
  • This results in a gene mutation and it can alter the sequence of the bases in a gene.
  • This then can lead to the gene coding for the wrong protein.
there are several ways in which gene mutations can occur
There are several ways in which gene mutations can occur:
  • Duplication of a nucleotide
    • Nucleotide inserted twice
  • Deletion of a nucleotide
    • A nucleotide is missed out
  • Substitution of a nucleotide
    • A different nucleotide is used
  • Inversion of a triplet
    • The sequence of the bases in a triplet is reversed.
3 31 understand that many mutations are harmful but some are neutral and a few are beneficial
3.31 Understand that many mutations are harmful but some are neutral and a few are beneficial.
  • Sometimes a gene mutation can be advantageous to an individual.
  • This can be due to a random mutation.
  • For example: a bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics.
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3.33 Understand that the incidence of mutations can be increases by exposure to ionizing radiation (e.g. gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet rays) and some chemical mutagens (e.g. chemicals in tobacco).

  • Gene mutations are random events that occur is all organisms.
  • The rate at which they occur can be increased by a number of agents called mutagens.
  • Mutagens include:
    • Ionising radiation (UV light, X-rays and gamma rays)
    • Some chemicals
      • Mustard gas
      • Nitrous oxide
      • Cigarette smoke and tar
      • Some chemicals from burnt food
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