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Language Choice and Code SwitchingMansoor Al SurmiMahishi RanaweeraNataliya Rihs
“Who speaks what language to whom and when?” Fishman (1965)
- Marked- the language used would not be normally expected in a certain context.
- Unmarked- Language used is one that would be expected in that context.
Laura Callahan (2001)
-Speakers change the way they spoke according to the person they were speaking to. We accommodate to others by adjusting our communicational behavior.
- Speakers tend to adopt similar styles to reduce the social distance. It is positively evaluated by speakers.
-Speakers adopt different styles to emphasize their distinctiveness or increase their social distance. It is negatively evaluated by speakers.
-A measurement of language attitudes.
-Technique used in social psychological studies to investigate people’s constant evaluation of personal qualities of others based on the use of linguistic varieties.
Language use is determined by factors such as social class, ethnic group, age and interlocutors’ relationship.
Language choice and code-switching is ‘habitual’: in practice certain languages tend to be associated with certain contexts.
1.Fishman(1972): In cases of stable bilingualism, certain language or variety will be used by particular classes of speakers on particular occasions and topics.
Domains of language use: institutional contexts and their congruent behavioral co-occurrences. Ex: family, employment, friendship, and government administration.
The use of mother tongue as a means of maintaining ethnic identity and in securing certain material advantages.
Language choice of English is linked to education, authority, and official use.
Swahili is used with other ethnic groups.
Languages convey certain meanings about the speakers and also index certain rights and obligations that speakers wish to obtain between themselves and others.
Hungarian is associated with traditional peasant life & German is the language of waged work and associated with modernity and economic success.
Standard variety of Hungarian is appropriate for conveying personal involvement and emotion or with elder people.
German enjoys a position of prestige compared to Hungarian and may cause death to Hungarian Language. ( Language Shift)
Speakers in part respond to the overt and covert prestige of different language varieties. (Labov & Trudgill)
-Overt and covert prestige.
Creativity involved in language behavior focusing on speakers’ use of different language varieties to express solidarity with or social distance from their interlocutors. (Howard Giles et al.)
Speakers’ language use is viewed as a series of ‘acts of identity’, in which speakers seek to align themselves with, or distance themselves from, certain social groups.( Tabouret-Keller)
(Russian) (Sinhala) (Arabic)
(Wish you) (a good) (day!)