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BA 187 – International Trade. Krugman & Obstfeld, Chapter 8 Instruments of Trade Policy.

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Ba 187 international trade

BA 187 – International Trade

Krugman & Obstfeld, Chapter 8

Instruments of Trade Policy


June m collier president national industries inc 1985

Free enterprise made this country. Free trade will destroy it. For five years, I’ve been advocating a 20 percent tariff on all imports. We can either do that, or our industrial base will erode to the point where we can’t build products to defend ourselves in the event of war. Our people will walk the streets because we are exporting jobs and importing welfare.

June M. Collier, President,

National Industries, Inc., 1985


Instruments of trade policy
Instruments of Trade Policy it. For five years, I’ve been advocating a 20 percent tariff on all imports. We can either do that, or our industrial base will erode to the point where we can’t build products to defend ourselves in the event of war. Our people will walk the streets because we are exporting jobs and importing welfare.

  • Tariffs aretaxes levied on imported goods.

    • Specific Tariff: levied as fixed amount on each unit of goods imported.

    • Ad Valorem Tariff: a tax levied as a fraction of the value of goods imported.

  • Export Taxes or Subsidies are levied on exported goods.

    • Either as specific tax (subsidy)or as an Ad Valorem tax (subsidy) on exports.

  • Non-Tariff Barriers (NTB’s)

    • Import Quotas: Limitations on the quantity of imports.

    • Export Restraints: Limitations on quantity of exports (usually imposed by exporting country).

    • Miscellaneous Restraints: Gov’t Procurement Provsions, Domestic Content Rules, Administrative Classifications, Border Taxes.


Partial equilibrium analysis
Partial Equilibrium Analysis it. For five years, I’ve been advocating a 20 percent tariff on all imports. We can either do that, or our industrial base will erode to the point where we can’t build products to defend ourselves in the event of war. Our people will walk the streets because we are exporting jobs and importing welfare.

  • Will examine effects of trade policy in a partial equilibrium framework.

    • Ignore interactions across economy, focus on single market.

  • Assumptions:

    • Two countries, Home and Foreign.

    • One good, which both countries produce and consume.

    • Good can be costlessly transported between countries.

    • Exchange rate constant throughout, quote price of good in terms of Home currency in both Home & Foreign.

    • Home country assumed to import this good from Foreign.

  • Equilibrium price determined by Home’s Import Demand and Foreign’s Export Supply Curves.


1. At P it. For five years, I’ve been advocating a 20 percent tariff on all imports. We can either do that, or our industrial base will erode to the point where we can’t build products to defend ourselves in the event of war. Our people will walk the streets because we are exporting jobs and importing welfare. 0, Demand exceeds supply in Home market, hence demand for imports, D0 – S0.

2. Rise in Price to P1, reduces Home excess demand, lowers import demand to D1 – S1.

3. Further rise in Price to P2, eliminates Excess Demand, reduces import demand to 0.

4. Result is a downward-sloping Import Demand Curve, MD, for Home Country.

P2

P1

D1 – S1

P0

MD

D0 – S0

D1 – S1

D0 – S0

Home’s Import Demand

Home Market

Price, P

Imports

Price, P

S

D

Quantity, Q

Quantity, Q


2. At P it. For five years, I’ve been advocating a 20 percent tariff on all imports. We can either do that, or our industrial base will erode to the point where we can’t build products to defend ourselves in the event of war. Our people will walk the streets because we are exporting jobs and importing welfare. 0, Foreign Demand equals Supply so no exports of good are available.

3. As Prices rise, Foreign Demand less than Supply so exports of good are available.

4. Result is an upward-sloping Export Supply Curve, XS, from Foreign country.

XS

S*2 – D*2

P2

S*1 – D*1

P1

P0

S*1 – D*1

S*2 – D*2

Foreign’s Export Supply

1. Can perform similar exercise for Foreign. Quote foreign price in Home currency.

Foreign Market

Price, P

Exports

Price, P

S*

MC

D*

Quantity, Q

Quantity, Q


1. Foreign Country has upward- it. For five years, I’ve been advocating a 20 percent tariff on all imports. We can either do that, or our industrial base will erode to the point where we can’t build products to defend ourselves in the event of war. Our people will walk the streets because we are exporting jobs and importing welfare.

sloping Export Supply Curve, XS.

XS

2. Home Country has downward-

sloping Import Demand, MD.

3. Trade is in equilibrium for the

good when world price = PW and

amount of good traded = QT.

PW

MD

QT

World Partial Equilibrium

World Market

Price, P

Quantity, Q


Effect of a tariff on imports
Effect of a Tariff on Imports it. For five years, I’ve been advocating a 20 percent tariff on all imports. We can either do that, or our industrial base will erode to the point where we can’t build products to defend ourselves in the event of war. Our people will walk the streets because we are exporting jobs and importing welfare.

  • Tariff drives a wedge between price paid by consumers in Home and price received by exporters in Foreign.

  • Specific Tariff of $t per unit.

    • Shifts the Export Supply Curve up by $t at each q.

    • New equilibrium price in Home rises by less than $t.

    • Why? Because new price received by Foreign exporter’s falls below initial price (terms of trade effect).

      • Size of this effect depends on importance of Home Country in World market. Generally this effect is negligible.

      • “Small Country Case” assumes no change in Foreign price, implying Home price rises by full amount of tariff.

    • Quantity of good traded falls below free trade level.


2. Home imposes specific import tariff t, which shifts XS up by t.

3. New equilibrium with home price PT = P*T + t. Quantity traded falls.

XS’

t

PT

t

P*T

Tariffs in Large Country

1. Begin in equilibrium at PW with Home imports equal Foreign exports

4. How burden of tariff distributed between Home & Foreign depends on

slopes of MD and XS curves, i.e. PT and P*T relative to initial PW.

Domestic

Price

Home Country

World Market

Foreign

Price

Foreign Country

Price

DH

SH

DF

SF

XS

PW

MD


Measuring amount of protection
Measuring Amount of Protection by t.

  • “Height of the average tariff” is a measure of how much price interference exists in country’s tariff schedule.

  • Unweighted Average Nominal Tariff rate:

    • Does not take into account relative importance of each good. Tends to overstate true height of average tariff.

  • Weighted Average Nominal Tariff rate:

    • Each good’s tariff is weighted by the importance of the good in the bundle of imports. Tends to be biased downwards.

  • Prohibitive Nominal Tariff rate:

    • Tariff rate so high it prevents imports from coming into country.

  • Effective Rate of Protection (ERP):

    • Change in the value-added of an industry (relative to free trade) due to imposition of a tariff structure on intermediate & final products.


Nominal t and effective g tariff rates
Nominal (t) and Effective (g) Tariff rates by t.

Source: Deardorf & Stern, The Effects of the Tokyo Round and the Structure of Protection


Costs and benefits of protectionist policies

Costs and Benefits of Protectionist Policies by t.

Large Country Analysis


Measuring market costs benefits
Measuring Market Costs & Benefits by t.

  • Measure costs/benefits of protection with monetary quantities.

  • Consumer Costs/Benefits:

    • Consumer surplus: measures the monetary amount between price consumer actually pays and price she/he willing to pay.

    • Calculated as area under the Demand Curve above market price.

  • Producer Costs/Benefits:

    • Producer surplus: measures the monetary amount between price producer actually receives and price she/he willing to accept.

    • Calculated as area above the Supply Curve but below market price.

  • Government Costs/Benefits:

    • Government Revenue: measures the monetary amount generated by the tariff that government receives as revenue.


S by t. H

2. Home Country has downward-

sloping Import Demand, MD.

3. Trade is in equilibrium for the

good when world price = PW and

amount of good traded = QT.

DH

Consumer & Producer Surplus

Home Market

Price, P

1. Foreign Country has upward-

sloping Export Supply Curve, XS.

P0

Quantity, Q


1. Specific import tariff t on good, by t.

domestic price rises to PT from PW.

2. Consumer surplus falls by areas:

a + b + c + d

3. Producer surplus rises by area:

a

4. Government revenue rises by area:

c + e

PT

a

c

b

d

t

e

P*T

S2

D2

QT

Costs and Benefits of a Tariff

Price, P

Home Market

SH

5. Deadweight loss (cost of protection):

b + d (= pro’dn loss + consump loss)

PW

6. Terms of Trade Gain:

e (decline in export good price to P*T

DH

S1

D1

Quantity, Q


Summary of import tariff
Summary of Import Tariff by t.

  • Import Tariff brings three net effects to economy.

    • Tariff raises domestic price of good above free trade level.

  • Production Distortion (loss);

    • Leads domestic producers to produce too much of the import good resulting in an efficiency loss.

  • Consumption Distortion (loss);

    • Tariff leads domestic consumers to consume too little of the import good resulting in a welfare loss.

  • Terms of Trade Effect (gain);

    • Tariff lowers world demand for import good, resulting in a fall in the world price of the import good. Likely to be small in reality.

  • Summary of Import Tariff (Probable Welfare Loss);

    • Terms of trade effect negligible, so tariff will probably reduce level of welfare in the country imposing the tariff.


1. Specific export subsidy, s, on good, by t.

domestic price rises to PS from PW.

2. Consumer surplus falls by areas:

a + b

3. Producer surplus rises by areas:

a + b + c

PS

a

c

b

d

S

4. Cost of Subsidy given by areas:

b + c + d + e + f + g

e

f

g

P*S

Exports

Effects of an Export Subsidy

Home Market

Price, P

SH

PW

5. Net Welfare Loss given by areas:

b + d + e + f + g

DH

Quantity, Q


Summary of export subsidy
Summary of Export Subsidy by t.

  • Export Subsidy has exact opposite effects to import tariff.

    • Subsidy raises domestic price of good above free trade level.

  • Production Distortion (loss);

    • Leads domestic producers to produce too much of the export good resulting in an efficiency loss.

  • Consumption Distortion (loss);

    • Subsidy leads domestic consumers to consume too little of the export good resulting in a welfare loss.

  • Terms of Trade Effect (loss);

    • Subsidy raises world supply of export good, resulting in a fall in the world price of the export good. Likely to be small in reality.

  • Summary of Import Tariff (Welfare Loss);

    • Even if terms of trade effect negligible, subsidy will certainly reduce level of welfare in the country giving the subsidy.


Agricultural subsidies 1979 1986
Agricultural Subsidies, 1979-1986 by t.

Source: Rosenblatt et al, The Common Agricultural Policy of the EC, IMF 1988


Costs and benefits of protectionist policies1

Costs and Benefits of Protectionist Policies by t.

Small Country Analysis


1. Import tariff, t, raises domestic by t.

price PT = PW + t for small country.

PT

t

a

b

c

d

ST

DT

Tariff for a Small Country

Price, P

2. Consumer surplus falls by areas:

a + b + c + d

SH

3. Producer surplus rises by area:

a

4. Government revenue rises by area:

c

5. Deadweight loss (cost of protection):

b + d (= pro’dn loss + consump loss)

DH

PW

S0

D0

Quantity, Q


1. 100% import tariff on good, by t.

domestic price rises from $1 to $2.

a=$15

b

=$5

c=$30

d=$10

Costs & Benefits of a Tariff

Price, P

2. Consumer surplus falls by areas:

a + b + c + d = $60

SH

$5

3. Producer surplus rises by area:

a = $15

$4

4. Government revenue rises by area:

c = $30

$3

5. Deadweight loss (cost of protection):

b + d = $15

$2

DH

$1

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Quantity, Q


U s example 1978 cb radio tariff

In 1978, import tariffs on CB radios increased from 6% to 21%.

FTC estimated this had the following effects:

Price rose from $54 to $62.

Demand fell 1.53 million

Domestic Prod’n up 221,000

Assume no effect on world price, analyze effects on U.S. welfare.

Costly to consumers with little benefit to producers or number of U.S. jobs created.

U.S. Example: 1978 CB Radio Tariff

Source: Morkre & Tarr, Effects of Restriction on U.S. Imports, FTC


Costs and benefits of protectionist policies2

Costs and Benefits of Protectionist Policies 21%.

Non-Tariff Barriers (NTB’s)


Non tariff barrier import quota
Non-tariff Barrier – Import Quota 21%.

  • Most common form of a Non-Tariff Barrier is an import quota which restricts the quantity of good imported.

  • Import Quota

    • Restricts quantity of good imported during a year.

    • Effect is to increase home price of the good over free trade.

    • Market effects identical to a specific tariff. In fact, any quota can be mimicked by an equivalent tariff.

    • Welfare effects differ because gov’t does not necessarily receive revenue as under a tariff. May gain revenue if auctions off import licenses, otherwise additional revenue received by foreign exporters.

  • Voluntary Export Restraint (VER’s)

    • Foreign supplier “voluntarily” agrees to restrict quantity imported.

    • Usually a political agreement so Home does not look protectionist.

    • Market effects identical to an import quota, but welfare effects differ as foreign firms receive additional profit, Home gov’t receives nothing.


1. Import quota level set at Q 21%.q. Raises

domestic price PqH, lowersforeign.

2. There exists an equivalent tariff, tq ,

for any quota that has same result.

Quota

XS’

tq

PqH

5. Quota brings no Government

revenue increase of a tariff. Who

earns this quota profit or rent

depends on structure of quota.

PqW

Qq

Effects of an Import Quota

World Market

Price, P

3. Market effects of tariff and a quota

are identical but not welfare effects.

4. Consumer surplus, producer surplus and associated Deadweight loss (= pro’dn loss + consump loss) are identical.

XS

PW

MD

Q0

Quantity, Q


2. Look at effects of Demand growth on 21%.

market under quota vs. equiv. tariff.

3. Under the quota, new equilibrium

at E3 with Pq3 at same Qq.

E3

4. Under the tariff, new equilibrium

at E2 with Pq2 at higher Qq2.

Pq3

E2

Pq2

5. With Demand Growth, quota leads

to higher home price with no change

in quantity. Quota rent increases.

MD’

6. With Demand Growth, equiv tariff

leads higher home price & quantity.

Gov’t revenue also increases.

Qq2

Demand Growth & Import Quota

1. Import quota level set at Qq with

associated equivalent tariff, tq.

World Market

Price, P

Quota

XS’

XS

Pq1

E1

E0

PW

tq

PqW

MD

Qq1

Q0

Quantity, Q


Ntb s on industrial country imports as of imports
NTB’s on Industrial Country Imports 21%.(as % of imports)

Source: Grilli & Sassoon, The New Protectionist Wave, 1990.


Other forms of ntb s
Other Forms of NTB’s 21%.

  • Government Procurement Provisions

    • Restrict purchase of foreign goods by home gov’t agencies.

    • Similar to an Ad Valoremimport tax, where home producer receives certain percentage of price protection.

  • Domestic Content Provisions

    • Reserve some of value-added & product sales to home producers.

  • European Border Taxes

    • Value-added tax (VAT) in EU. Imports to EU must pay equivalent VAT, while EU exports receive rebate for VAT. Looks like an import tariff & an export subsidy

  • Administrative Classification

    • Import duty depends on classification, gives leeway to customs.

  • Restrictions on Services Trade

    • Less visible. Restrict foreign provision of certain services.


Welfare effects of u s trade restrictions
Welfare Effects of U.S. Trade Restrictions 21%.

Source: De Melo & Tarr, Welfare Costs of Quotas on Textile, Steel, & Apparel


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