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“See-Through” Bridge Rails. Agenda: Introduction Bridge Barriers and Railings Development of See-Through Rails Applications Desired Features See -Through Alternatives Cost Comparison FAQs Next Steps Your Questions. Shannon Post/ Greg Kaderabek Caltrans

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See through bridge rails
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

  • Agenda:

  • Introduction

    • Bridge Barriers and Railings

  • Development of See-Through Rails

    • Applications

    • Desired Features

  • See -Through Alternatives

  • Cost Comparison

  • FAQs

  • Next Steps

  • Your Questions..

Shannon Post/ Greg Kaderabek

Caltrans

Division of Engineering Services

August, 2011


Bridge rails classes of railings
Bridge RailsClasses of Railings


Bridge rails design and crash criteria
Bridge RailsDesign and Crash Criteria


Bridge rails see through alternatives
Bridge Rails“See-Through” Alternatives

  • Applications:

    • California Coastal Commission/ Local Coastal Program

    • Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS)

    • Bridge or Roadside


Bridge rails see through alternatives1
Bridge Rails“See-Through” Alternatives

  • Desired Features:

    • Visibility: minimize impairment of views from the bridge; aesthetically pleasing view of the bridge from public areas

    • Rail Height: consistent with minimum required height for anticipated users (vehicle, bicycle and/or pedestrians)

    • Aesthetics: enhance visual appeal by applying color, texture and other treatments


Bridge rails see through alternatives2
Bridge Rails“See-Through” Alternatives


California st 10 bridge rail
California ST 10 Bridge Rail

  • Description: See through 2-bar curb-mounted steel bridge rail

  • Test Level: TL-4

  • Standard Plans: B11-68, B11-69, B11-70

  • Height: 33” above bridge deck (27” steel rail plus 6” curb)

  • Comments: Requires additional rail for use as a pedestrian/bicycle rail to increase height to a minimum of 42”.

  • Successfully used on past projects in the Coastal Zone.


California st 10 bridge rail1
California ST 10 Bridge Rail

  • California ST-10 Bridge Rail with Bicycle Rail offset 15” from rail face

  • California ST-10 Bridge Rail separated from the Pedestrian Handrail by a Walkway.



California st 20s bridge rail
California ST-20S Bridge Rail

  • Description: See through 5-bar curb-mounted steel bridge rail

  • Test Level: TL-4

  • Bridge Standard Detail Sheets: see website

  • Height: 54” above bridge deck (48” steel rail plus 6” curb)

  • Comments: The rail is 12” higher than the minimum required Bicycle Rail or Pedestrian Rail height of 42”.


California st 20s bridge rail1
California ST-20S Bridge Rail

Van Duzen River Bridge

Humboldt County


California st 30 bridge rail
CaliforniaST-30BridgeRail

  • Description: See through 2-bar curb-mounted steel bridge rail

  • Test Level: TL-4

  • Standard Plans: Standard Plan B11-65

  • Height: 32” above bridge deck (25” steel rail plus 7” curb)

  • Comments: Requires additional rail for use as a pedestrian/bicycle rail to increase height to a minimum of 42”.


California st 30 bridge rail1
CaliforniaST-30BridgeRail

South Fork Dibble Creek, Tehama County


California st 70 bridge rail
CaliforniaST-70BridgeRail

  • Description: See through 4-bar curb-mounted steel bridge rail

  • Test Level: TL-4

  • Bridge Standard Detail Sheets: see website

  • Height: 46.5” above bridge deck (40.5” steel rail plus 6” curb)

  • Comments: Rail is similar to California ST-20S Bridge rail except that the top 7.5” high handrail has been removed. This rail is 4.5” higher than the minimum required Bicycle Rail or Pedestrian Rail height of 42”.


California st 40 bridge rail
California ST 40 Bridge Rail

  • Description: See through 4-bar sidewalk mounted steel bridge rail.

  • Test Level: TL-2

  • Standard Plans: Standard Plans B11-66, B11-67

  • Height: 42”above sidewalk. 8” high sidewalk/curb next to traffic (9” at edge of deck).

  • Constraints: Cannot be used on bridge decks with vehicular traffic signed for greater than 45 mph.


California st 40 bridge rail1
California ST 40 Bridge Rail

Renderings of California ST-40


Concrete barrier type 80
Concrete Barrier Type 80

  • Description: See through concrete barrier.

  • Test Level: TL-4

  • Standard Plans: Standard Plans B11-60, B11-61, XS Sheet website

  • Height: 32” above bridge deck.

  • Comments: Requires addition of steel rail on top to increase height to a minimum of 42” as well as modification of the clear opening for use as a pedestrian/bicycle rail.

    Successfully used on past projects in the Coastal Zone.


Concrete barrier type 801
Concrete Barrier Type 80

  • Photo of Concrete Barrier Type 80 - Modified with Architectural Treatment and with Bicycle Rail Offset 15” from Rail Face.


Concrete barrier type 802
Concrete Barrier Type 80

Sheffield Drive Bridge

Santa Barbara County


Concrete barrier type 90
Concrete Barrier Type 90

  • Description: Concrete barrier with see through steel rail on top.

  • Test Level 4: TL-4

  • Bridge Standard Detail Sheets: See website.

  • Height: 32” above bridge deck.

  • Comments: In order to also be used as a pedestrian/bicycle rail, requires additional steel rail mounted at least 15” behind the rail face to increase height to a minimum of 42” as well as modification to reduce the clear openings.


Concrete barrier type 80sw
Concrete Barrier Type 80SW

  • Description: See through concrete barrier with a raised sidewalk.

  • Test Level: TL-2

  • Standard Plans: Standard Plans B11-62, B11-63, B11-64

  • Height: 42” above sidewalk (32” See-through concrete barrier plus 10” of handrail). 8” high sidewalk/curb next to traffic (9” at edge of deck).

  • Comments: Cannot be used on bridge decks with high speed vehicular traffic (greater than 45 mph).


Concrete barrier type 80sw1
Concrete Barrier Type 80SW

Canal Street Bridge

El Dorado County


See through bridge rails cost comparison
See-Through Bridge RailsCost Comparison


See through bridge rails summary
“See-Through” Bridge RailsSummary

  • Notes:

  • +Standard Plans ++ Bridge Standard Detail Sheet

  • ^ Requires additional rail for use as a pedestrian/bike rail to increase height to 42”

  • # Can apply architectural treatment


See through bridge rails1
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

  • Frequently Asked Questions….

  • 1. What is the recommended minimum rail height for bridge bicycle rails? AASHTO says 42” but the Highway Design Manual says 54”.

  • AASHTO lowered the minimum required rail height for bicyclists from 54” to 42” at their 2006 annual meeting.

  • The Caltrans initiated a bicycle rail height study that concluded that a 42” minimum bicycle rail offset 15” from the face of the vehicular rail is sufficient for most situations.

  • The Department issued a memorandum on November 26, 2008 lowering the height from 54” to 42” for most applications.

  • Caltrans recommends a minimum height of 48” where a combination of high bicycle speeds and high crash impact angles are anticipated. See AASHTO Bridge Design Specifications for more details


See through bridge rails2
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

  • Frequently Asked Questions….

  • 2. What is the Type Selection process for an aesthetic bridge rail?

  • The Project Development Team (PDT) shall evaluate the need for a CSS rail early in the project.

  • A Conceptual Bridge Rail Plan needs to be reviewed/approved by the PDT and used in the environmental process.

  • During the Design phase, need to ensure that the aesthetic bridge rail meets all project requirements as well as structural/crash test requirements.

  • Projects in the coastal zone may require special consideration.


See through bridge rails3
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

  • Frequently Asked Questions….

  • 3. Are there any special considerations where barriers are placed on a structure with a high super-elevation?

  • All bridge barriers are to remain vertical regardless of the super-elevation.

  • If the super-elevation is 6% or greater, a higher bridge rail is required on the outside of the curve. Issues regarding super-elevation should be discussed as early in the design process as possible.


See through bridge rails4
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

  • Frequently Asked Questions….

  • 4. Can see-through rails developed for bridges be used in other applications?

  • The see-through rails were developed for bridge applications, but can be modified for other uses by special design.

    • For example, a see-through rail can be used on the roadside by mounting the rail on a reinforced concrete trench footing or on a trench footing on CIDH piles.

    • See-through rails can also be used with earth retaining systems, however the design of the earth retaining system needs to consider vehicular impact loads.


See through bridge rails5
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

  • Frequently Asked Questions….

  • 5. Are there any limitations on the type of aesthetic treatment that can be applied to these bridge rails?

  • Any color can be added as architectural treatment.

  • There are limitations on the architectural texture that can be applied to the surface of rails. Drawings and reports detailing the texture relief limits on rail can be found at the Caltrans Landscape Architecture website:

  • http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/LandArch/barrier_aesthetics/index.htm


See through bridge rails6
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

  • Frequently Asked Questions….

  • 6. Can these rails be used to support other roadway appendages, such as sign structures or lighting standards?

  • In high speed locations (posted speeds over 45 mph), rails can support roadway appendages without any further crash testing, if the appendage is offset 15” behind the front face of the rail. This applies to bicycle rail, sign posts, sign structures, light standards, etc.

  • In low speed locations (posted speed of 45 mph or less) rails without a sidewalk may have roadway appendages if the appendage is offset 8” behind the front face of rail. Rails with a sidewalk in low speed locations do not require an offset for appendages, but special attachment details may apply depending on the rail type.

  • Contact Caltrans/DES when there is a need for any roadway appendage to be attached to top or backside of rail.


See through bridge rails7
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

Bridge Standard Detail Sheets (aka XS Sheets) website:

http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/techpubs/manual/bridgemanuals/bridge-standard-detail-sheets/


See through bridge rails next steps
“See-Through” Bridge RailsNext Steps

  • Guidance

  • DRAFT Design Information Bulletin (DIB), Bridge Rail Development, Design and Selection Guidelines

  • Update Highway Design Manual

  • Bridge Rails and Barriers: A Reference Guide for Transportation Projects in the Coastal Zone

  • Crash Testing/ Development of additional alternatives

Shannon Post/ Greg Kaderabek

Division of Engineering Services

August, 2011


See through bridge rails8
“See-Through” Bridge Rails

Questions????

Shannon Post/ Greg Kaderabek

Division of Engineering Services

August, 2011


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