Nanomaterials: Potential impact on human health . Paul J.A. Borm . Paris- OECD- june 7 th 2005. Nanoparticles-already a bulk market. All. Various. Doubling from 493 € to 900 Mi in 2005 Biggest increase SiO 2 expected. Metals. Al 2 O 3. TiO 2. SiO 2. 0. 200. 400. 600. 800. 1000.
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Potential impact on human health
Paul J.A. Borm
Paris- OECD- june 7th 2005
Nanoparticles-already a bulk market
Doubling from 493 € to 900
Mi in 2005
Biggest increase SiO2 expected
Production rates for
Nanoparticles and nanotubes are important parts in this toolbox
Drug in Matrix
For inductive drug release
Intravenous delivery of engineered NP
Needs to study a series of questions:
New products, applications
High added value
Negligible exposure (CNT, CB)
No added value, extra cost
Considerable health risks
to a toxicologist
Particles in traditional dusty trades
0.01 0.1 1 10mm
Smaller size means different interactions and distribution
Cilia 0.25µm diameter
10µm 1 µm 0.1µm
Protein binding by NP may
have different consequences
Borm and Kreyling (2004)
J. Nanotech & NanoSci
Nanosize has physical implications
Nanosize has implications for surface reactivity and chemistry
TiO2 TiO2 Ti0.99O1.95
Have an active and large surface that can interact with
many targets in the body
Bad recognition by our immune system and even
Enhance response to antigens
Can cause acute inflammation with secondary effects such
Combustion nanoparticles cause worsening of heart disease,
atherosclerosis and asthma.
Are in the size of proteins and can interfere with normal
cellular signaling pathways.
Most of the evidence for human effects is generated
using unintentionally produced combustion
Effects of manufactured Nanoparticles have mainly
been studied with a small set of particles already
on the market for decades (carbon black, TiO2, FexOy)
Little data on occupational exposure to manufactured
Nanoparticles. Available data suggest negligible
Inhalation exposure (= background).
A Bermuda Triangle
Bulk industrial NP
Summary of inhalation (o)
and instillation studies (●)
With fine and ultrafine
The carcinogenic response in the rat is driven by surface dose.
This means that regulation of all particles could be done using
A surface dose concept.
Borm et al (2004) Int J cancer
Ad2: qualitative differences: Uptake of NP in the brain
Activation of inflammatory
Cascade in brain
Caldwell et al, 2005
Relation to Alzheimer?
Calderon-Garciduenas, et al, 2004
Relation to systemic effects such as heart rate, blood pressure changes (Brook et al, 2002; Lippman et al, 2005)
Oberdorster et al, 2004
Carbon, Au, MnO
State of the art: Little exchange between companies or between companies and Toxicological research institutes.
Producers and Users of Nanomaterials
Needed: networks to enable communication
and data exchange between nanoscience and