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Higher Education

Work-Related Violence

This material was produced under grant number SH-17035-08-60-F-11 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. These materials do not necessarily reflect views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of any trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.


Goals
Goals

  • Raise awareness of extent and severity of problem

  • Learn basic elements of a prevention program


Scope of Problem

Every Year:

  • 1.7 million Americans are assaulted at work

  • 6 million are threatened

  • 16 million workers are harassed

Source: Bureau of Justice, Workplace Violence, 1993 - 1999

National Crime Victimization Survey


Annual rates of assault by employer type national crime victims survey us doj 2001
Annual Rates of Assaultby employer typeNational Crime Victims Survey, US DOJ 2001


Annual rates of assault by selected occupational fields national crime victims survey us doj 2001
Annual Rates of Assaultby selected occupational fieldsNational Crime Victims Survey, US DOJ 2001


The Silent Epidemic

  • 58% of harassed employees do not report incidents

  • Fewer than half of workers report assault to the police

  • Only 25% of rapes at work are reported

Source: National Crime Victimization Survey


What are the Causes of Under-Reporting of Workplace Assaults?

  • “Part of the job” syndrome

  • “Consequence of living in a violent society”

  • Fear of blame or reprisal

  • Lack of management/ peer support

  • No serious injuries

  • “Not worth the effort”


Typology
Typology Assaults?

  • Type I – Criminal intent (stranger)

  • Type II – Customer/client/patient

  • Type III – Co-worker

  • Type IV – Personal (friend/family)


Identify all risk factors
Identify All Risk Factors Assaults?

  • Potential perpetrators / intent

  • At-risk staff

  • Activities / Situations

  • Locations

  • Times of day / week / year


Risk identification activities 1
Risk Identification Activities (1) Assaults?

Records review

  • OSHA logs

  • Logs of other incidents

  • You / union have right to records

    • Check for completeness

    • Review multiple years – look for trends


Risk mapping Assaults?

Color coding of injuries/incidents :

Blue: 1

Green: 2 - 4

Orange: 5 >


Risk identification activities 2
Risk Identification Activities (2) Assaults?

Review Policies and Programs

  • What policies exist?

  • Cover all types/sources of violence

  • Post-incident investigation and support

  • Are they applied consistently?

  • Periodically reviewed and revised


Zero Tolerance Policies Assaults?

  • Worker-focused approach

  • May violate “just cause” standards

  • May be viewed as unfair if they are arbitrary and reflexive

  • Ignores systemic causes

Proceed with caution!


Risk identification activities 3
Risk Identification Activities (3) Assaults?

Worksite inspection

  • Building and grounds

  • Dangerous areas

  • Potential weapons / “exacerbators”

  • Checklist

  • Conduct regularly


Risk identification activities 4
Risk Identification Activities (4) Assaults?

Talk to the Workers

  • Face-to-face

  • Questionnaire survey

  • Focus groups

  • Provide confidentiality, as needed

  • Report H&S cmte activities


Risk identification activities 5
Risk Identification Activities (5) Assaults?

Talk to Students/Families

  • Individually

  • Focus groups

  • Identify “stressors” and triggers

  • Form coalitions


Risk factors organizational administrative 1
Risk Factors Assaults?(organizational/administrative) (1)

Staffing

  • Adequate numbers

  • Distribution

    • Shift

    • Location

  • OT – excessive, mandated


Risk factors organizational administrative 2
Risk Factors Assaults?(organizational/administrative) (2)

Rules and Work Procedures

  • Intake, meds, etc.

  • Meals, phones, smoking, etc.

  • Goldilocks


Risk factors organizational administrative 3
Risk Factors Assaults?(organizational/administrative) (3)

Communication and Teamwork

  • Between shifts

  • Across disciplines


Risk factors organizational administrative 4
Risk Factors Assaults?(organizational/administrative) (4)

Training and Education

  • Tailored to worksite

  • Mandatory

  • Periodic refreshers

  • Interactive

  • Focus only on individual actions?


Risk Factors Assaults?(Physical Environment) (1)

  • Access control

  • Working in isolation

  • Hidden areas

  • Surveillance cameras

  • Security hardware, alarm systems, etc.


Risk Factors Assaults?(Physical Environment) (2)

  • Lighting, noise, air quality

  • Sharp edges

  • Hard surfaces

  • Work in dangerous neighborhoods

  • Other?


What are your risks
What are YOUR risks? Assaults?

  • Who, what where, when, why, how?

  • What are the causes?

  • What can you/we do?


Post-incident Response Assaults?

  • Comprehensive program

  • Debriefing

  • Medical and psychological counseling

  • Victims, witnesses, co-workers

  • Identify and adopt preventive measures

  • Interactions with the criminal justice system


OSHA GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE: Assaults?SECTION 5(a)(1)

Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm

This includes the prevention and control of the hazard of workplace violence


Osha guidelines
OSHA Guidelines Assaults?

Preventing Workplace Violence for HealthCare and Social Service Workers (1996/2003)

www.osha.gov


Violence prevention programs
Violence Prevention Programs Assaults?

Core Elements

OSHA 2003

  • Management Commitment and Employee Involvement

  • Worksite Analysis

  • Hazard Prevention and Control

  • Safety and Health Training

  • Recordkeeping and Program Evaluation


Violence prevention programs1
Violence Prevention Programs Assaults?

  • Assign responsibility and authority

  • Involve staff in all aspects of violence prevention

  • Allocate adequate resources

  • Encourage reporting – No reprisals

  • Equal commitment to worker safety and client outcomes


Hazard evaluation control
Hazard Evaluation & Control Assaults?

  • Organize a team

  • Analyze injury data

  • Focus groups/ survey affected staff

  • Evaluate work environment

  • Organize to implement changes


Labor’s Strategies Assaults?

  • joint L/M programs

  • contract language and grievances

  • OSHA complaints, PR, Coalitions

  • promulgation of state and federal laws

    • Washington State rule for hospitals

    • Lisa’s Law in Michigan

    • Marty’s Law in Washington



Pef s stop workplace violence campaign goals
PEF’s Stop Workplace Violence Campaign Goals Assaults?

  • Education

  • Legislation

  • Mobilization


Pef swv campaign activities
PEF SWV Campaign Activities Assaults?

  • $250,000

  • 10 day-long regional trainings

  • Buttons, stickers

  • DVD, “Human Faces” Booklet to legislators/Das

  • Postcards

  • Press conference, lobbying, coalition building

  • Worksite action plans


Pef s stop workplace violence campaign outcomes
PEF’s Stop Workplace Violence Campaign Outcomes Assaults?

  • $250,000 from PEF Membership Benefits

  • 10 regionally-based day-long mobilization/trainings

  • Development of booklet and DVD

  • Successful legislative campaign

  • Increased activity


Mobe training participants
Mobe/training Participants Assaults?

Number of Regional Trainings – 10

Total Participants – 318

Members – 294

Regional Coordinators – 12

Vice-Presidents - 3

EOL Used – 213

PEF Staff - 24

PEF Divisions – 116

Total Workplaces - 126


Swv campaign follow up source of workplace violence
SWV Campaign Follow-up Assaults?Source of Workplace Violence

Patient/client/inmate – 70.4%

Co-worker – 16.5%

Member of the public – 13.9%

Supervisor – 2.6%

Spouse/family/partner – 0.8%

Robber – 0.0%

data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents


Swv campaign follow up post training actions
SWV Campaign Follow-up Assaults?Post-training Actions

Spoke with co-workers – 91.3%

Spoke with management – 75.7%

Committee deal w/ issue – 68.7%

Formed new committee – 16.5%

Participate in legisl. camp. – 80.9%

data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents


Swv campaign follow up post training changes
SWV Campaign Follow-up Assaults?Post-training Changes

Any change – 36.5%

Physical environment – 19.1%

New/revised policy – 8.7%

Staffing – 8.7%

Other – 9.6%

data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents


Legislative program
Legislative Program Assaults?

  • Annual Report on Workplace Injuries and Costs in State Agencies:

    S6840 Robach / A9692 John VETOED

  • Judi Scanlon Bill:

    S207 Maziarz / A2570 Hoyt VETOED

  • Workplace Violence Prevention Bill:

    S6441 Spano / A9691 John SIGNED


New nys violence standard
NEW Assaults? NYS Violence Standard

  • All public employers must evaluate their workplaces to identify violence-related risk factors

  • Must implement written program (if >20 workers)

    • List of risk factors

    • Risk-reduction measures

  • Takes effect 2007

  • Get Involved !!


Workplace violence resources
Workplace Violence Resources Assaults?

  • www.pef.org

  • www.osha.gov

  • www.cdc.gov/niosh

    • Violence in the workplace, CIB 57 (1996)

    • Violence: Occupational hazards in hospitals (2002)

    • Violence on the job (DVD) (2004)


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