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Higher Education Work-Related Violence

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slide1

Higher Education

Work-Related Violence

This material was produced under grant number SH-17035-08-60-F-11 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. These materials do not necessarily reflect views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of any trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

goals
Goals
  • Raise awareness of extent and severity of problem
  • Learn basic elements of a prevention program
slide3

Scope of Problem

Every Year:

  • 1.7 million Americans are assaulted at work
  • 6 million are threatened
  • 16 million workers are harassed

Source: Bureau of Justice, Workplace Violence, 1993 - 1999

National Crime Victimization Survey

annual rates of assault by selected occupational fields national crime victims survey us doj 2001
Annual Rates of Assaultby selected occupational fieldsNational Crime Victims Survey, US DOJ 2001
slide6

The Silent Epidemic

  • 58% of harassed employees do not report incidents
  • Fewer than half of workers report assault to the police
  • Only 25% of rapes at work are reported

Source: National Crime Victimization Survey

slide7

What are the Causes of Under-Reporting of Workplace Assaults?

  • “Part of the job” syndrome
  • “Consequence of living in a violent society”
  • Fear of blame or reprisal
  • Lack of management/ peer support
  • No serious injuries
  • “Not worth the effort”
typology
Typology
  • Type I – Criminal intent (stranger)
  • Type II – Customer/client/patient
  • Type III – Co-worker
  • Type IV – Personal (friend/family)
identify all risk factors
Identify All Risk Factors
  • Potential perpetrators / intent
  • At-risk staff
  • Activities / Situations
  • Locations
  • Times of day / week / year
risk identification activities 1
Risk Identification Activities (1)

Records review

  • OSHA logs
  • Logs of other incidents
  • You / union have right to records
    • Check for completeness
    • Review multiple years – look for trends
slide11

Risk mapping

Color coding of injuries/incidents :

Blue: 1

Green: 2 - 4

Orange: 5 >

risk identification activities 2
Risk Identification Activities (2)

Review Policies and Programs

  • What policies exist?
  • Cover all types/sources of violence
  • Post-incident investigation and support
  • Are they applied consistently?
  • Periodically reviewed and revised
slide13

Zero Tolerance Policies

  • Worker-focused approach
  • May violate “just cause” standards
  • May be viewed as unfair if they are arbitrary and reflexive
  • Ignores systemic causes

Proceed with caution!

risk identification activities 3
Risk Identification Activities (3)

Worksite inspection

  • Building and grounds
  • Dangerous areas
  • Potential weapons / “exacerbators”
  • Checklist
  • Conduct regularly
risk identification activities 4
Risk Identification Activities (4)

Talk to the Workers

  • Face-to-face
  • Questionnaire survey
  • Focus groups
  • Provide confidentiality, as needed
  • Report H&S cmte activities
risk identification activities 5
Risk Identification Activities (5)

Talk to Students/Families

  • Individually
  • Focus groups
  • Identify “stressors” and triggers
  • Form coalitions
risk factors organizational administrative 1
Risk Factors(organizational/administrative) (1)

Staffing

  • Adequate numbers
  • Distribution
    • Shift
    • Location
  • OT – excessive, mandated
risk factors organizational administrative 2
Risk Factors(organizational/administrative) (2)

Rules and Work Procedures

  • Intake, meds, etc.
  • Meals, phones, smoking, etc.
  • Goldilocks
risk factors organizational administrative 3
Risk Factors(organizational/administrative) (3)

Communication and Teamwork

  • Between shifts
  • Across disciplines
risk factors organizational administrative 4
Risk Factors(organizational/administrative) (4)

Training and Education

  • Tailored to worksite
  • Mandatory
  • Periodic refreshers
  • Interactive
  • Focus only on individual actions?
slide21

Risk Factors (Physical Environment) (1)

  • Access control
  • Working in isolation
  • Hidden areas
  • Surveillance cameras
  • Security hardware, alarm systems, etc.
slide22

Risk Factors (Physical Environment) (2)

  • Lighting, noise, air quality
  • Sharp edges
  • Hard surfaces
  • Work in dangerous neighborhoods
  • Other?
what are your risks
What are YOUR risks?
  • Who, what where, when, why, how?
  • What are the causes?
  • What can you/we do?
slide24

Post-incident Response

  • Comprehensive program
  • Debriefing
  • Medical and psychological counseling
  • Victims, witnesses, co-workers
  • Identify and adopt preventive measures
  • Interactions with the criminal justice system
slide25

OSHA GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE: SECTION 5(a)(1)

Each employer shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm

This includes the prevention and control of the hazard of workplace violence

osha guidelines
OSHA Guidelines

Preventing Workplace Violence for HealthCare and Social Service Workers (1996/2003)

www.osha.gov

violence prevention programs
Violence Prevention Programs

Core Elements

OSHA 2003

  • Management Commitment and Employee Involvement
  • Worksite Analysis
  • Hazard Prevention and Control
  • Safety and Health Training
  • Recordkeeping and Program Evaluation
violence prevention programs1
Violence Prevention Programs
  • Assign responsibility and authority
  • Involve staff in all aspects of violence prevention
  • Allocate adequate resources
  • Encourage reporting – No reprisals
  • Equal commitment to worker safety and client outcomes
hazard evaluation control
Hazard Evaluation & Control
  • Organize a team
  • Analyze injury data
  • Focus groups/ survey affected staff
  • Evaluate work environment
  • Organize to implement changes
slide30

Labor’s Strategies

  • joint L/M programs
  • contract language and grievances
  • OSHA complaints, PR, Coalitions
  • promulgation of state and federal laws
    • Washington State rule for hospitals
    • Lisa’s Law in Michigan
    • Marty’s Law in Washington
pef s stop workplace violence campaign goals
PEF’s Stop Workplace Violence Campaign Goals
  • Education
  • Legislation
  • Mobilization
pef swv campaign activities
PEF SWV Campaign Activities
  • $250,000
  • 10 day-long regional trainings
  • Buttons, stickers
  • DVD, “Human Faces” Booklet to legislators/Das
  • Postcards
  • Press conference, lobbying, coalition building
  • Worksite action plans
pef s stop workplace violence campaign outcomes
PEF’s Stop Workplace Violence Campaign Outcomes
  • $250,000 from PEF Membership Benefits
  • 10 regionally-based day-long mobilization/trainings
  • Development of booklet and DVD
  • Successful legislative campaign
  • Increased activity
mobe training participants
Mobe/training Participants

Number of Regional Trainings – 10

Total Participants – 318

Members – 294

Regional Coordinators – 12

Vice-Presidents - 3

EOL Used – 213

PEF Staff - 24

PEF Divisions – 116

Total Workplaces - 126

swv campaign follow up source of workplace violence
SWV Campaign Follow-upSource of Workplace Violence

Patient/client/inmate – 70.4%

Co-worker – 16.5%

Member of the public – 13.9%

Supervisor – 2.6%

Spouse/family/partner – 0.8%

Robber – 0.0%

data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents

swv campaign follow up post training actions
SWV Campaign Follow-upPost-training Actions

Spoke with co-workers – 91.3%

Spoke with management – 75.7%

Committee deal w/ issue – 68.7%

Formed new committee – 16.5%

Participate in legisl. camp. – 80.9%

data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents

swv campaign follow up post training changes
SWV Campaign Follow-upPost-training Changes

Any change – 36.5%

Physical environment – 19.1%

New/revised policy – 8.7%

Staffing – 8.7%

Other – 9.6%

data from follow-up questionnaire survey – 115 respondents

legislative program
Legislative Program
  • Annual Report on Workplace Injuries and Costs in State Agencies:

S6840 Robach / A9692 John VETOED

  • Judi Scanlon Bill:

S207 Maziarz / A2570 Hoyt VETOED

  • Workplace Violence Prevention Bill:

S6441 Spano / A9691 John SIGNED

new nys violence standard
NEW NYS Violence Standard
  • All public employers must evaluate their workplaces to identify violence-related risk factors
  • Must implement written program (if >20 workers)
    • List of risk factors
    • Risk-reduction measures
  • Takes effect 2007
  • Get Involved !!
workplace violence resources
Workplace Violence Resources
  • www.pef.org
  • www.osha.gov
  • www.cdc.gov/niosh
    • Violence in the workplace, CIB 57 (1996)
    • Violence: Occupational hazards in hospitals (2002)
    • Violence on the job (DVD) (2004)
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