Faraday’s Law. Faraday’s Law of Induction.
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A conducting loop that encloses an area A in thepresence of a uniform magneticfield B. The angle between B andthe normal to the loop is θ
• The magnitude of B can change with time.
• The area enclosed by the loop can change with time.
The angle θ between B and the normal to the loop can change with time.
• Any combination of the above can occur.
(a) In an electric guitar, a vibrating magnetized string induces an emf in apickup coil. (b) The pickups (the circles beneath the metallic strings) of this electricguitar detect the vibrations of the strings and send this information through an
amplifier and into speakers. (A switch on the guitar allows the musician to select whichset of six pickups is used.)
conductor moving through a constant magnetic field.
A straight electrical conductor of length ! Movingwith a velocity v through a uniform magnetic field B directedperpendicular to v. Due to the magnetic force on electrons, theends of the conductor become oppositely charged. This establishesan electric field in the conductor. In steady state, the electric andmagnetic forces on an electron in the wire are balanced
(a) A conducting bar sliding with a velocity v alongtwo conducting rails under theaction of an applied force Fapp. Themagnetic force FB opposes themotion, and a counterclockwise current I is induced in the loop.(b) The equivalent circuit diagramfor the setup shown in part (a).
a potential difference is maintained between the ends
of the conductor as long as the conductor continues to move through the
uniform magnetic field. If the direction of the motion is reversed, the polarity of thepotential difference is also reversed
(a) As the conducting bar slides on the two fixed conducting rails, the magnetic flux due to the externalmagnetic field into the page
through the area enclosed by the
loop increases in time. By Lenz’s
law, the induced current must be
counterclockwise so as toproduce a counteracting magntic field directed out of the page. (b) Whenthe bar moves to the left, the
induced current must be clockwise.