Fuel injection systems with a focus on fuel atomization
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Fuel Injection Systems with a focus on Fuel atomization. By: David Shamrell. Overview. Fuel Injection Systems Speed Density EFI Fuel Injector Design Fuel Atomization Swirl Injectors Electrospray. Speed Density Fuel Injection Sys. Fuel Flow Path:

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Fuel Injection Systems with a focus on Fuel atomization

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Fuel injection systems with a focus on fuel atomization

Fuel Injection Systems with a focus on Fuel atomization

By: David Shamrell


Overview

Overview

  • Fuel Injection Systems

    • Speed Density

    • EFI

  • Fuel Injector Design

  • Fuel Atomization

    • Swirl Injectors

    • Electrospray


Speed density fuel injection sys

Speed Density Fuel Injection Sys.

  • Fuel Flow Path:

    • Pump → Filter → Regulator → Branch Lines → Injector.

  • Air Flow Path

    • Air Filter →Throttle Plate →Intake Manifold

  • Determines Air Flow Via:

    • Engine Speed

    • Manifold Pressure

    • Air Temperature


Efi system

EFI System

  • Fuel Flow Path

    • Same as Speed Density

  • Air Flow Path

    • Air Filter →Air Flow Sensor→ Throttle Plate→ Intake Manifold

  • Determine Air Flow Via:

    • Measured Air Flow

    • Engine Speed

Air Flow Sensor


Fuel injector

Fuel Injector

  • Electromagnetically actuated valve

    • Can cycle several times a second

      • Controlled by Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

    • Nozzle design affect atomization

      • Needle helps minimize dribble (secondary injection)


Fuel atomization

Fuel Atomization

  • Fuel Atomization is a function of:

    • Fuel injector geometry

    • Fuel jet velocity

      • Function of fuel system pressure

    • Spray type (turbulent or laminar)

      • Function of nozzle type (Swirl, etc)

    • Fuel delivery temperature

    • Fuel electrical charge


Swirl nozzle injectors

Swirl Nozzle Injectors

  • Multiple types, one pictured from patent 6029913

    • Filed by Cummins Engine Company 1998

      • 6 curvilinear spray holes

      • 90 degree curvature orientation

  • “flow through tangential flow path causing rapid spreading and breakup of fuel jet spray upon exiting spray hole”


Electrospray injection

Electrospray Injection

  • Installed Electrode:

    • Downstream fuel injector

    • Upstream orifice

  • Benefits

    • Reduces surface tension of liquid

    • Shortens breakup length

    • Enlarges the cone angle of the spray


Electrospray experimental results

Electrospray Experimental Results

0 KV

Fuel jet

No jet

30 KV

Wider more homogenous spray


Electrospray issues

Electrospray Issues

  • Charge To Mass Ratio (of droplet)

    • Inversely proportional to droplet size

    • Step increase around 20µm (droplet diameter)

    • Modern techniques w/out electrode can achieve 10µm

  • Charge Used in Experimental = 30KV

    • Hard to obtain in a mobile platform

  • Injection velocity vs. charge (Competing Factors)

    • Charge imparted is a function of time

      • Slower velocity = more charge

    • However atomization is proportional to injection velocity

      • Thus slower velocity = less atomization


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