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普通物理学教程 热学 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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普通物理学教程 热学. 授课教师:覃一平 广州大学物理与电子工程学院 2007 年编. 复习 §3.9. 稀薄气体 的特征: λ >L 或 λ >>L λ >>L 的超高真空气体为极稀薄气体 稀薄气体的热传导规律: 超高真空气体的分子主要与器壁发生碰撞,其平均自由程由分子与器壁碰撞的平均自由程决定 在温度一定时,压强越低热传导越差(即,真空度越高绝热性能越好). 第四章 热力学第一定律. 讨论热力学系统内能的变化与外界做功及传热之间的关系 热力学第一定律:系统从外界吸收的热量等于系统内能的增量和系统对外做的功之和

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普通物理学教程 热学

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5983937

2007


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3.9

  • >L>>L

  • >>L


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4.1


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p

O

V

quasi-static process


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1

1

2

2


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<

~ 1


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p

S

O

V

(1)

(2)

(3) ,


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:

--------

--------

( T )0.1

L/v = 0.1/100/ = 0.001

Lv

1.

2.


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1

1

2

2


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4.2


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V1

V2

S


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p

O

V

  • V1V2


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p

O

V


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p

V1

O

V


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p

p1

O

V


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4.3


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WW


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(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)


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1

2


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P222:

4.2.2


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4.1-4.31


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4.1-4.32

  • V1V2


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4.1-4.33


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4.4


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uUmUM


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  • UpV


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hHmH


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4.5


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p, V, T


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  • 1845 0.01,


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S

l

l

p

V1

O

V


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V1

V2

S

l

p

p1

O

V


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4.23


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V1

V2

S

S

l

p

O

V


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V1

V2

S

S

l

p

O

V

;


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=5/3=7/5


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  • *

  • *


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pVn=n

n=

n=1

n=0

n


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  • n

1n=Cs,m=0

n=1CT,m

n=0Cp,m= CV,m

nCV,m=CV,m


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2n>Cn,m>0

1<n<Cn,m<0

n<1Cp,m>0

3Cn,m-n

Cn,m=CV,m

=1

4Cn,m<0


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1


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P222-224:

4.4.2

4.4.6

4.5.2

4.5.5

4.5.7

4.5.8

4.5.11

4.5.18


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4.4-4.51


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4.4-4.52


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4.6


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  • 17

  • 183

  • 1824Sadi Carnot

  • A:, B:, C: D-- , E--


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W

Q1

T1

Q2

T2


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P

A

B

C

D

O

E

F

V

  • :


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.

A

p

T1

T

1

Q

1

B

.

Q1

.

D

.

W

C

Q

T

o

2

Q2

2

V

V

V

V

V

A

D

B

C

T2

Carnot cycle


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AB


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BC

CD

DA


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T1

Q1

W

Q2

T2


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  • 227oC27oC


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d

p

e

c

a

b

o

V1

V

V2

r


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4.7


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P

Q1

A

B

C

D

Q2

O

E

F

V

  • WQ2Q1


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T1

Q1

W

Q2

T2

W = Q1 Q2


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w1


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-


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  • -

  • T-p

>0 <0


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CO2: ~1500 K, Ar: 780 K,

O2: 764 K, N2: 621 K,

Ne: 231 K, H2: 202 K,

He: ~ 40 K, Air: 659 K.


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Q1

T1

W

Q2

T2


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P225:

4.6.1

4.6.4

4.7.1


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1

  • ;;


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2


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P101-105:

2.3.1

2.7.2


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