Food security c oncepts basic facts and measurement issues
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FOOD SECURITY C oncepts, Basic Facts, and Measurement Issues. June 26 to July 7, 2006 Dhaka, Bangladesh. Rao 2a: Analytics 1: Food Availability and Food Deficits.

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Food security c oncepts basic facts and measurement issues

FOOD SECURITYConcepts, Basic Facts,and Measurement Issues

June 26 to July 7, 2006

Dhaka, Bangladesh


Rao 2a analytics 1 food availability and food deficits

Rao 2a: Analytics 1: Food Availability and Food Deficits

Learning: Based on the concepts of the basics of the aggregative models and of the different types of food deficit, trainees will develop facility with graphical representations in the analysis of any given real-life situation.


Brief contents

Brief Contents

  • three analytical approaches relating to availability, access and nutrition

  • an aggregative model of the basics: requirements, demand and supply

  • three types of deficit: production deficit, supply deficit, demand deficit

  • market imbalances versus food deficits

  • graphical representation of the basics and of deficits


Analytic approaches

Analytic Approaches

  • Food Availability Approach

    • Aggregate Level

    • Key Concepts: Production, Supply, and types of Food Deficit

  • Food Access Approach

    • (Mainly) Individual or HH Level

    • Key Concepts: Economic and Social Access, Effective demands or Entitlements

  • Food Utilization Approach

    • (Mainly) Individual or HH Level

    • Concepts: Nutrition, Health, and valued or functional Outcomes


Factors determining food availability

Factors DeterminingFood Availability

  • the volume and stability of food production (whether subsistence or market oriented)

  • available food stocks (farm-level, commercial, government stocks)

  • food imports (commercial and concessional).


Factors determining access to food

Factors Determining Access to Food

  • For the market-dependent: the purchasing power, or level of real income

    • At HH Level: wage levels, employment, prices, etc.

    • At National Level: availability of F/E for food imports

  • For subsistence producers: productive assets available & non market transfers

    • [At National Level: resource endowments & food aid respectively)


Factors determining utilisation of food

Factors DeterminingUtilisation of Food

  • Basic (physical) Factors

    • Dietary intake

    • Body metabolism

  • Complementary (socio-environmental) Factors

    • Water, sanitation and food safety

    • Health care, disease prevention and control

    • Education and awareness of food-nutrition factors

    • Food culture and food norms


An aggregative model of food deficits

An Aggregative Modelof Food Deficits

  • To analyze FS of a country (both at point in time and changes over time) we use the following REQUIREMENTS--DEMAND--SUPPLY graphs


Fig 2 1 closed economy case w neither food imports nor exports

Fig. 2.1: Closed Economy Case(w/ neither food imports nor exports)

  • Basic model of aggregate food situation in closed economy

Note: real economies will be neither completely closed nor completely open


Fig 2 2 open economy w imports

Fig. 2.2: Open Economy w/ Imports

  • Basic model of aggregate food situation in open economy

Note: real economies will be neither completely closed nor completely open


5 basic elements of the model

5 Basic Elements of the Model

  • 1. Production Curve

    • shows the volume of aggregate food production at varying market prices of food

    • food production includes subsistence production as well as production for sale on the market


5 basic elements of the model1

5 Basic Elements of the Model

  • 2. Supply Curve

    • shows total food supplies at varying market prices; incorporates food production (see previous), modified by stock changes and food imports/exports.

    • For a closed economy with NO stock changes, Supply Curve = Production Curve

    • For open economy, this is so only until domestic price reaches world price level


5 basic elements of the model2

5 Basic Elements of the Model

  • 3. Demand Curve

    • shows total food demand (effective market demand plus home consumption from subsistence output)

    • Why negative slope? Real income effects.

  • 4. Food Requirements

    • approximately given by calorie or staple food requirements on the basis of food balance sheets

    • IMP. NOTE: more unequal is food distribution, higher will be requirements


5 basic elements of the model3

5 Basic Elements of the Model

  • 5. Market Prices

    • major factor determining food production, supply and demand.

    • In closed economy, regulated OR competitive OR quasi-competitive

    • In a free, open economy: price is world-market determined (CIF or FOB)


Food deficits

Food Deficits

  • The following types of food deficits can arise:

    • in PRODUCTION

    • in SUPPLY

    • in DEMAND

    • MARKET IMBALANCES (deficit or surplus)


Types of food deficit defined

Types of Food Deficit (defined)


Types of food deficit graphs

Types of Food Deficit (graphs)

2.3a: Areas of production deficits

(& supply deficits in a closed economy)


Types of food deficit graphs1

Types of Food Deficit (graphs)

2.3b: Area of supply deficits

in an open economy


Types of food deficit graphs2

Types of Food Deficit (graphs)

2.3c: Area of demand deficits


Types of food deficit graphs3

Types of Food Deficit (graphs)

2.3d: Areas of market imbalances (surpluses & deficits)

in a closed economy


Market imbalances

Market Imbalances

  • Market imbalances (deficits or surpluses)

    • ←→ market price differs from equilibrium price

    • [set below (market supply deficit) or above (market demand deficit) "market-clearing" P]

  • Question: Is this statement true?

    If the market price is fixed below equilibrium price … food demand would rise, so demand deficit would diminish.

    However, food supplies from domestic production as well as food imports (in the open economy case) would go down.

  • Market imbalances either require Government Regulation or Market Collusion.


Table 2 1 types of food deficits

Table 2.1: Types of Food Deficits

* Prices set apart from equilibrium prices lead to an overall change of the deficit structure, see above.


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