doing it tough in urban spaces in adelaide dr helen cameron unisa
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Doing it tough in Urban spaces in Adelaide ( Dr. Helen. Cameron – UniSA). This paper discusses aspects of results from ARC funded Research – UniSA, Flinders Uni and Department of Human Services (DHS) Timeframe of the study – 2001 to 2003

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doing it tough in urban spaces in adelaide dr helen cameron unisa
Doing it tough in Urban spaces in Adelaide(Dr. Helen. Cameron – UniSA)
  • This paper discusses aspects of results from ARC funded Research – UniSA, Flinders Uni and Department of Human Services (DHS)
  • Timeframe of the study – 2001 to 2003
  • Study of a sample of disadvantaged residents identified according to SEIFA Index
  • Initial phase with 512 residents
  • Follow up phase with 260 of these
in this session
In this Session
  • Social Disadvantage of the Sample
  • Culture, Parenting & Housing
  • Perceptions of Trust & Safety
  • Backgrounds of Risk in the Suburbs
  • Collective Efficacy in the Neighbourhood
  • Synthesis of Issues
  • Conclusions
1 social disadvantage
1. Social Disadvantage
  • 73.1% completed only Year 11 or less [Metro Adelaide: 52.3%]
  • 47.4% were of single-parents [Metro Adelaide 16.6%] and 46.6% were parents for the first time at < 19 years [Metro Adelaide: 9.8%]
  • 6.0% were employed [Metro Adelaide 54%]
  • 73.7% main source of income was Govt. assistance
  • 36.9% no access to a car [Metro Adelaide 11%]
2 culture housing
2. Culture & Housing
  • 6.8% identified as being of ATSI origin [Metro Adelaide: 1.0%] with 10.9% of children being identified as of ATSI origin
  • Most residents were renting their homes from the SAHT (55.8%) [Metro Adelaide: 8.0%] 24.5% are in private rental accommodation [Metro Adelaide: 17.3%] – so ownership < 20%
  • Housing Mobility - 34.1%had lived at their current address < 1 year; 69.4% < 5 years [Metro Adelaide: <1 yr, 10.2% <5 yr, 26.4%]
3 perceptions of neighbourhood safety trust 2001 2002 data
3. Perceptions of Neighbourhood Safety & Trust(2001/2002 Data)

Perceptions of safety & trust (scale 1- 4)

Questions about whether others could be trusted and about how safe they felt

  • No suburb had scores indicating residents felt safe or trusted others much– 1.9 average
  • Also little variation of opinion on these variables - range 1.7 to 2.4 (SD between 0.03 and 0.9)
  • Single parents with ONE adult in house – expressed lowest levels of trust in others and general feelings of safety
social disorder in the suburbs
Social disorder in the suburbs
  • Garage and bus-stop vandalised
4 risk the stats on crime in the suburbs sapol data base 2000
4. RISK – the Stats on Crime in the Suburbs (SAPOL data base 2000)
  • Rates per 1,000 for crimes in 2000 in the suburbs studied, c.f. overall Adelaide Metro rates:
  • Property crimes 263 c.f. 131
  • Personal attacks 40 c.f. 13
  • Sexual attacks 6 c.f. 1
  • General law & order 45 c.f. 19
  • Drugs 81 c.f. 3

So low trust & perceptions of risk have a reality base in actual crime rates

5 collective efficacy as a construct
5. Collective Efficacy as a Construct

Collective efficacy is a measure of two fields of perception: (Sampson 1997)

Informal social control

  • How likely people are to take action about events in the neighbourhood

Social cohesion

  • Sense of connection and agreement with others in neighbourhood
neighbourhoods informal social control
Neighbourhoods & Informal Social Control
  • Vacant house vandalised in SA
6 synthesis
6. Synthesis
  • Low levels of trust, Informal social control, combine with risk (i.e. crime)& other factors to lower social connection
  • Other factors -Sole parents (46%), and residential mobility (74% moving several times in last 5 years) are factors that lower levels of social connection
7 conclusions
7. Conclusions
  • The combined picture of low safety&trust, high mobility and sole parenting, low collective efficacy andhighrisk from crime rates calls for targeted intervention
  • Government services need to aim to build stronger, safer communities and to provide better supports for sole parents (education pathways, parenting support)
  • Children are the nation’s future and require intelligent investment by all sectors of government
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