AS Revision Introduction to Physical Education G451. Why do you participate in Physical Activity (or not)? . Key. ET = Exam TIP KT = Key Term. Physical Activity. Physical Benefits Eg improved CV fitness o r maintenance of a h ealthy body weight. Mental Benefits
Eg improved CV fitness
or maintenance of a
healthy body weight
Eg stress relief, mood
Enhancement, or feel good
Eg knowing own strengths
and weaknesses or
Increasing self esteem.
Eg feeling of belonging or
Having healthy relationships
ET = you need to be able to give examples of physical, mental, personal and social benefits of regular participation in physical activity.
Lack of opportunity
Lack of provision
Lack of esteem
Physical Benefits – to do with the body Eg potential to reduce the risk of heart disease.
Social Benefits – to do with others
Eg having positive relationships
Personal Benefits – to do with self
Eg improved self-esteem
Mental Benefits – to do with the mind
Eg stress relief
ET - always use these key terms especially for ten mark questions
Esteem – Confidence to participate
Opportunity – The chance to take part
based on factors such as time, money etc
Provision – the availability of facilities
which allow for participation.
Enjoyment is a key
Participation not performance
Taking part, not winning
Enjoyment and satisfaction, not record-breaking
ET - when asked to identify the characteristics of Phys Rec it is important to be specific and clear in your answers. If simple bland terms are used such as ‘anyone, anywhere at anytime’ to describe characteristics you will not gain marks. Be specific not vague!
Remember that outdoor recreation is physical recreation in the natural environment eg a walking holiday
PE can be defined as :-
Learning about and through physical activity
The learning of physical, personal, preparatory and qualitative values through
formal physical activity in school
Constraints of widespread
participation In Outdoor
Education by young people:-
Perceived Risk Real Risk
Completely safe dangerous even fatal
What makes a sport?
Physical Prowess – Skill
Sportsmanship– Fair Play
Physical Endeavour– Effort and Commitment
Gamesmanship– Stretching the rules
To gain an unfair advantage.
Aesthetic– movement that is beautiful
to watch and pleasing to the eye
Sledging– Attempting to undermine an
Opponent by verbally abusing , taunting
Deviance – seriously breaking the rules
Win at all costs
Conference- Similar to a league
Highly Commercialised State
300 million people
In 50 states
Rags to riches
Franchise- The business that
Owns, runs and has voting rights
for a team
Population 21,007,310 (2008 est.)
James Cook of England
charted eastern coast,
claimed it for British Crown
Retained Colonial Influences
Rugby 2 codes
Association football (Socceroos)
Complete time-line on map!
Give reasons for physical activity (physical education, physical recreation and sport) being of such high status in Australia. 
White Australia Policy
proof of progress
In: taxes, gaming duties
and National Lottery sales.
Out:- Local authorities, awards
and grants eg UK sport. Sportsmatch
Sponsorship, Armed forces sport
In: business profit, ticket sales, TV rights
Out:- sponsor individuals, teams, running and maintaining private sports
clubs and facilities, buying TV rights, Sport Aid Grants, National Sports Foundation
In: national lottery grants, awards for all, sportsmatch grants, local authority grants, NGBs, fundraising, Foundation for sports and arts, National sports Foundation, Commercial Sponsorship and members subscription
Out:- facility building maintenance and development, developing performers (coaching), running a club
Years from podium
Home country talent development systems
Exam Tip 1
Key sporting bodies and orgs
such as UK sport are not told
what to do, however they are
answerable to the DCMS
due to the funding
Exam Tip 2
You can only be asked questions
on material that is in the
specification, so you will not get a
question specifically about PESSCL
strategy, you may have to identify
current government initiatives.
Exam Tip 3
There will be five parts to your AS
Socio-cultural studies q’s. The
Final part will be an extended 10
mark question. You have to
‘critically evaluate’, and therefore
prove how you can think and
You could be asked to name and explain each layer of the sports development pyramid in the examination. Ensure you can recall the ones beginning with ‘p’, candidates often get these confused.
The Sports Development Pyramid
Mass Participation Sporting Excellence
The continuum from mass participation to sporting excellence
Are we ‘guided’ into sports due to our race?
Do we avoid sports where our race has not traditionally or currently been represented?
Groups who are different in their ethnic origin from the majority of the population.
The physical characteristics of an individual.
Countries may concentrate on a particular sport e.g. Kenyan and middle/long distance running.
How do we get Equal Opportunities? Sporting Excellence
Myths– Untruths eg black males can’t swim and women can’t park cars.
Attitudes: Outlooks, feelings or thought about something.
Positive Discrimination– Favouritism
Or special treatment for the focus
Group in order to give them a chance
Stereotyping– Typecasting, labelling or pigeonholing people.
Social Exclusion– the negative result
of factors such as low income,
discrimination, poor housing etc that
can put some communities at a
Socialisation– the process by which people
Learn acceptable cultural beliefs and
behaviour including how to interact with
people who are different to themselves.
"In the name of all competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honour of our teams."
ET -If a question is asked for solution to the problem of drugs, make sure that you don’t list drug types, respond using the bullet points above.
Be aware of modern
technological products are
scientific or high-tech items
that impact on sport.
The impact is usually
Considered to be good, but
In some cases may increase
The chance of injury
Eg Football Boots
ET - If you are asked to critically evaluate the impact of the media on sport – it simply means that you should way up ( in good written form) the advantages and disadvantages of the media in sport eg additional funding for sport v rule changes and off-peak viewing times.
Golden Triangle -The Inter-relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media
Sport and Media
High level sport is a media commodity.
Sport available 24/7
Media control over some sports
Celebrities are created and role models can have +ive or –ive image
Low profile sports get little attention so minimal sponsorship opportunities.
Relationship can increase match
fixing and other examples of
Sport and Sponsorship
Sponsorship increases popularity
and stability of sport.
Sport is a relatively inexpensive form of advertising.
Money from sponsorship can help improve spectator provision.
Powerful sports such as premier league football have some control over their sponsors
Sponsorship and Media; When sports are covered by the media sponsorship ultimately
Causes Of Violence by Players
Solutions to Violence by Players Sporting Excellence
Violence by Spectators Sporting ExcellenceReasons and Solutions
Letter and Spirit of ‘The Law’
KT Olympic Charter- The ‘rule book’ that governs how the Olympic
Games and IOC are run.
The bringing together of people from 5 different Sporting Excellence
Promotes Olympic games
Organises visits to
Host City prior to
sponsors of 2012
Helps athletes and
NGBs prepare for
Manages Team GB
Inc. transport and kit
Helps select Team GB
Works on Olympic Bids