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Research Overview: What Sayeem Has Been Doing?. Abu (Sayeem) Reaz University of California, Davis, USA. National Instruments Interview February 09, 2011. Earliest Multi-Hop Network. Betterment of networks using feasible technologies.

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Research Overview:

What Sayeem Has Been Doing?

Abu (Sayeem) Reaz

University of California, Davis, USA

National Instruments Interview

February 09, 2011


Earliest Multi-Hop Network

Betterment of networks using feasibletechnologies

Andreas J. Kassler, Research Opportunities at Karlstads Universitet


Presentation Overview

  • PhD Research

    • Routing over Wireless and Optical Access

    • Asymmetric “Capacity” Deployment and Resource Assignment

    • Integrating Cloud in Access Network and Green Routing

    • Wireless Highway for 3G Backhaul

    • IPTV Stream Generator

  • MS Research

    • Location Management using DNS

    • Multi-class (Vertical) Handoff Management

    • Secure Paging in Handoff Management

  • Opportunity for Contribution to NI

    • Problem Solving

    • Programming and Development




Network Architecture: WOBAN (2)

  • WOBAN: Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Network

  • Deploy broadband access network with minimum wiring: cost effective

  • An optimal combination of optical and wireless network to minimize cost and maximize utilization and performance

    • Back-end: Optical access network, e.g., Passive Optical Network (PON)‏

    • Front-end: Multi-hop Wireless Mesh Network (WMN)‏

  • Optical Scenario:

    • Optical Line Terminals (OLTs) at Central Office (CO) are connected to Optical Network Units (ONUs) via fiber

    • ONUs are connected to the wireless access network via gateways

  • Wireless Scenario:

    • A set of wireless routers form a wireless mesh network: end users are connected to nearby router

    • Some wireless routers work as gateways, connecting the wireless network to optical network


Why?

WMN

+

PON

We like to have our cake and eat it too!


Routing: The Big Picture

Efficient routing across WMN and PON: Shortest Delay



PON: Native Routing

Downstream:

Broadcast

Upstream:

Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation


Data Flow

Downstream

Upstream



Asymmetry in WOBAN

Traffic flows to and from the OLT

Bottleneck near the Gateways

Flow Aggregation


As a Result…

Many “links” are not even used!

Not all nodes need the same Capacity

Traffic on Links (Mbps)


Mixed Capacity Wireless Access

Deploy radio where needed!




Resource Assignment: Challenges

Asymmetric Capacity and Flow

Need to assign both Radio and Channel


Traffic Aggregation

Smoother instantaneous burstiness!

http://www.ams-ix.net/technical/stats/


Channel Assignment: BLP

Intelligent Channel and Radio Assignment (ICRA)



Bringing Service to Users

Service = Content and/or Application

Can we bring them to closer to users?

Cloud-Integrated WOBAN (CIW)

Alix Boards

Clougplug




What Can We Gain

  • Adds value to the network  Competitive Edge

    • “Now I want to use this network!!”

  • Remove device dependencies

    • Any common interface: possibly a browser

  • Local services requests are delivered locally

    • No/Limited traffic introduced to wireless backhaul

    • More room for regular mesh traffic

  • Service traffic moves away from gateways

    • Bottleneck reduced

  • Local updates remains local

    • Likelihood of stale information becomes low


Wisper

Firetide

Aruba/Tropos/Meraki

Implementations




Green Routing in CIW (GRC)

Different part of the network is busy at different time of the day


GRC

Instead of pack-and-turnoff, utilize the architecture of WOBAN:

Selective Turnoff and Load Balance

3. Load balance for each pipe

2. Create BW Pipe for each Zone

1. Split into Zones




AT&T’s 3G cell sites are backhauled primarily through T1 lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a choke point as AT&T upgrades to faster and faster network technologies.

3G Backhaul

Connected Planet, Jan, 2010, http://connectedplanetonline.com/3g4g/news/att-doubles-3g-010510/


3G Architecture lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Is fiber capacity properly utilized?

Is copper a bottleneck?

Single point of failure?


Without Huge Investment… lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

  • Can we develop a methodology to

    • utilize fiber capacity

    • reduce copper bottleneck

    • create alternate paths for failure recovery

    • provide better service quality to high bandwidth application

      - Broadcast TV to UE

An Overlay Networkadjunct to the existing 3G network using High Capacity Wireless Links


Overlay Network Architecture lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Links become backup of each other

P2P High Capacity Wireless Link

Load Sharing


The Big Picture lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Multiple Overlays

Any size, any shape


Overlay Placement: MILP lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Summary lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


The WMN Version of the Problem lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

We have also investigated how an Overlay Network can be deployed in WMN

Because of the interference within the WMN, this is actually a “harder” problem


and the Formulation without the Details… lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Summary lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

A 43-Node WMN with 3 Gateways

Tested for deployment of 1, 2, and 3 overlay links


I and B Frame from Trace lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Correlated yet Different!


I and B Frame: Distribution lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

We need to generate I and B frames separately

Lognormal distribution closely approximates the frame size distribution of

I and B frames

M. Krunz and H. Hughes, “A traffic model for MPEG-coded VBR streams,'' Proc.,

ACM SIGMETRICS, 1995.


I lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a k

Ik+1

New Scene

Videos are constructed with scenes!

Scene length is important:

Within a scene, I frame sizes are close to each other…

If ∆ is significant, then it’s a new scene!

M. Krunz and H. Hughes, “A traffic model for MPEG-coded VBR streams,'' Proc.,

ACM SIGMETRICS, 1995.


Scene Length Distribution lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Variation Within a Scene lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

We use the relative sizes of all the I frames in a scene compared to the first I frame

Addresses the variations within a scene


Data Rate on 10G EPON lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Each frame size was picked from corresponding Lognormal distribution, but relation between scenes is not considered

Increased and continuous burstiness


Relative I Frame Size lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

We use the relative sizes of the first I frame in every scene and generate subsequent I frame sizes in the scene from the first I frame size


Relative B Frame Size lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

We use the relative B frame sizes compared to the I frame size in a GoP


Resultant Synthetic Trace lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Correlated, spike free synthetic traces with proper variations


Distribution of Frame Sizes lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

The frame size distributions match targeted Lognormal distributions even though they are not generated from actual Lognormal distributions


Original vs. Synthetic Trace lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Voila!


Data Rate on 10G EPON lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


MS Research lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


IP Mobility lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Old point of attachment

New point of attachment

IP Address 1

(old location)

IP Address 2

(new location)

Subnet 1

Subnet 2


SIGMA: lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a Seamless IP-diversity based Generalized Mobility Architecture

LM

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Basic idea: setup a new path to communicate with CN while maintaining the old path.

Handover process:

  • STEP 1: Layer 2 handover and obtain new IP address

  • STEP 2: Add IP addresses into the association

  • STEP 3: Redirect data packets to new IP address

  • STEP 4: Update location manager (LM)

  • STEP 5: Delete or deactivate obsolete IP address

CN

Internet

Router

MH

Subnet 2

Subnet 1

1 IP Address

2 IP Addresses

1 IP Address


Location Management using DNS lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

2

Location Update

DNS

Internet

3

1

Location Query

IP address 2

IP Address 1

IP Address 2

Subnet 2

Subnet 1

CN


Failure lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Query time > Duration in Overlapping Area

Challenge


Mobility Model lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Determine if there will be a query to DNS while updating the entry


Summary lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Multi-Class Handoff: mSIGMA lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Handoff Decision lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Performance lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Packet Trace lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

WLAN

to

CDMA

CDMA

to

WLAN


Paging SIGMA: P-SIGMA lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

  • PA  single ID for subnets

  • Roam within PA without updating LM

  • Active and Idle MHs update DNS at inter-PA handoff

  • Active MH updates PGW at intra-PA handoff

Location Update

Active MH

Active MH

Idle MH

Location Updates

Handoff across PA,

Update PGW and DNS

Handoff within PA,

Update PGW

Handoff within PA,

No update


Paging Algorithm lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

  • Low mobility  last location paging

  • High mobility  fixed paging

Low mobility subnet

High mobility subnets

MH found

MH not found

MH found

paging with MAC2

paging with MAC2

paging with MAC1

paging with MAC1

Fixed paging

Last location paging


Connection Initiation lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

  • PGW is lightweight LM  updated for only active hosts

  • DNS is heavyweight LM  updated for all hosts only for inter-PA handoff

name lookup

IP address X

Location Update

Connection INIT

Registration with IP address Y

Low mobility subnet

High mobility subnets

Connection INIT to Y

MH with MAC A

IP address X

IP address Y

paging for A

paging for A


Attack on P-SIGMA lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Intrusion Detection Algorithm lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

Free Loading

Session Hijacking


Summary lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Opportunity for Contribution to NI lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a


Problem Solving lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a

  • Identify new challenges for NI products

  • Using optimization techniques to maximize performance

    • Linear Programming

    • Simulated Annealing

  • Apply networking techniques

    • For intelligent data-flow

    • Energy efficiency


In a nutshell, lightRadio takes all of the essential elements of traditional base stations and antennas and shrinks them so that they can be distributed across the access network -- or cloud -- and deployed dynamically where or when capacity and coverage is needed. And the distributed network elements are connected via fiber-optic networks.

Footstep on a New Area

http://www.lightreading.com/document.asp?doc_id=204081


Programming and Development elements of traditional base stations and antennas and shrinks them so that they can be distributed across the access network -- or cloud -- and deployed dynamically where or when capacity and coverage is needed. And the distributed network elements are connected via fiber-optic networks.

  • Development of network-related products

    • Design intelligent protocols for routing

    • Implement upper-layer protocols using socket programming

    • Implement stack for lower-layer protocols

  • Use generic programming skill to contribute to any development


Network Programming elements of traditional base stations and antennas and shrinks them so that they can be distributed across the access network -- or cloud -- and deployed dynamically where or when capacity and coverage is needed. And the distributed network elements are connected via fiber-optic networks.

  • For Network layer or higher

    • Use native TCP/Datagram socket

  • For MAC layer

    • Raw socket programming for common MAC protocols

      • Send and receive data using MAC address

    • IRQ to access registers

      • Extract information from driver (not familiar)


Thank you! elements of traditional base stations and antennas and shrinks them so that they can be distributed across the access network -- or cloud -- and deployed dynamically where or when capacity and coverage is needed. And the distributed network elements are connected via fiber-optic networks.

Contact Information:

E-mail: [email protected]

Phone: 530-574-2090

Web: http://networks.cs.ucdavis.edu/~sayeem/


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