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Research Overview: What Sayeem Has Been Doing?. Abu (Sayeem) Reaz University of California, Davis, USA. National Instruments Interview February 09, 2011. Earliest Multi-Hop Network. Betterment of networks using feasible technologies.

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slide1

Research Overview:

What Sayeem Has Been Doing?

Abu (Sayeem) Reaz

University of California, Davis, USA

National Instruments Interview

February 09, 2011

slide2

Earliest Multi-Hop Network

Betterment of networks using feasibletechnologies

Andreas J. Kassler, Research Opportunities at Karlstads Universitet

slide3

Presentation Overview

  • PhD Research
    • Routing over Wireless and Optical Access
    • Asymmetric “Capacity” Deployment and Resource Assignment
    • Integrating Cloud in Access Network and Green Routing
    • Wireless Highway for 3G Backhaul
    • IPTV Stream Generator
  • MS Research
    • Location Management using DNS
    • Multi-class (Vertical) Handoff Management
    • Secure Paging in Handoff Management
  • Opportunity for Contribution to NI
    • Problem Solving
    • Programming and Development
slide6

Network Architecture: WOBAN (2)

  • WOBAN: Wireless-Optical Broadband Access Network
  • Deploy broadband access network with minimum wiring: cost effective
  • An optimal combination of optical and wireless network to minimize cost and maximize utilization and performance
    • Back-end: Optical access network, e.g., Passive Optical Network (PON)‏
    • Front-end: Multi-hop Wireless Mesh Network (WMN)‏
  • Optical Scenario:
    • Optical Line Terminals (OLTs) at Central Office (CO) are connected to Optical Network Units (ONUs) via fiber
    • ONUs are connected to the wireless access network via gateways
  • Wireless Scenario:
    • A set of wireless routers form a wireless mesh network: end users are connected to nearby router
    • Some wireless routers work as gateways, connecting the wireless network to optical network
slide7

Why?

WMN

+

PON

We like to have our cake and eat it too!

slide8

Routing: The Big Picture

Efficient routing across WMN and PON: Shortest Delay

slide10

PON: Native Routing

Downstream:

Broadcast

Upstream:

Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation

slide11

Data Flow

Downstream

Upstream

slide13

Asymmetry in WOBAN

Traffic flows to and from the OLT

Bottleneck near the Gateways

Flow Aggregation

slide14

As a Result…

Many “links” are not even used!

Not all nodes need the same Capacity

Traffic on Links (Mbps)

slide15

Mixed Capacity Wireless Access

Deploy radio where needed!

slide18

Resource Assignment: Challenges

Asymmetric Capacity and Flow

Need to assign both Radio and Channel

slide19

Traffic Aggregation

Smoother instantaneous burstiness!

http://www.ams-ix.net/technical/stats/

slide20

Channel Assignment: BLP

Intelligent Channel and Radio Assignment (ICRA)

slide22

Bringing Service to Users

Service = Content and/or Application

Can we bring them to closer to users?

Cloud-Integrated WOBAN (CIW)

Alix Boards

Clougplug

slide25

What Can We Gain

  • Adds value to the network  Competitive Edge
    • “Now I want to use this network!!”
  • Remove device dependencies
    • Any common interface: possibly a browser
  • Local services requests are delivered locally
    • No/Limited traffic introduced to wireless backhaul
    • More room for regular mesh traffic
  • Service traffic moves away from gateways
    • Bottleneck reduced
  • Local updates remains local
    • Likelihood of stale information becomes low
slide26

Wisper

Firetide

Aruba/Tropos/Meraki

Implementations

slide29

Green Routing in CIW (GRC)

Different part of the network is busy at different time of the day

slide30

GRC

Instead of pack-and-turnoff, utilize the architecture of WOBAN:

Selective Turnoff and Load Balance

3. Load balance for each pipe

2. Create BW Pipe for each Zone

1. Split into Zones

slide33

AT&T’s 3G cell sites are backhauled primarily through T1 lines, which, while adequate in the early days of UMTS, wind up becoming a choke point as AT&T upgrades to faster and faster network technologies.

3G Backhaul

Connected Planet, Jan, 2010, http://connectedplanetonline.com/3g4g/news/att-doubles-3g-010510/

slide34

3G Architecture

Is fiber capacity properly utilized?

Is copper a bottleneck?

Single point of failure?

slide35

Without Huge Investment…

  • Can we develop a methodology to
    • utilize fiber capacity
    • reduce copper bottleneck
    • create alternate paths for failure recovery
    • provide better service quality to high bandwidth application

- Broadcast TV to UE

An Overlay Networkadjunct to the existing 3G network using High Capacity Wireless Links

slide36

Overlay Network Architecture

Links become backup of each other

P2P High Capacity Wireless Link

Load Sharing

slide37

The Big Picture

Multiple Overlays

Any size, any shape

slide40

The WMN Version of the Problem

We have also investigated how an Overlay Network can be deployed in WMN

Because of the interference within the WMN, this is actually a “harder” problem

slide42

Summary

A 43-Node WMN with 3 Gateways

Tested for deployment of 1, 2, and 3 overlay links

slide43

I and B Frame from Trace

Correlated yet Different!

slide44

I and B Frame: Distribution

We need to generate I and B frames separately

Lognormal distribution closely approximates the frame size distribution of

I and B frames

M. Krunz and H. Hughes, “A traffic model for MPEG-coded VBR streams,\'\' Proc.,

ACM SIGMETRICS, 1995.

slide45

Ik

Ik+1

New Scene

Videos are constructed with scenes!

Scene length is important:

Within a scene, I frame sizes are close to each other…

If ∆ is significant, then it’s a new scene!

M. Krunz and H. Hughes, “A traffic model for MPEG-coded VBR streams,\'\' Proc.,

ACM SIGMETRICS, 1995.

slide47

Variation Within a Scene

We use the relative sizes of all the I frames in a scene compared to the first I frame

Addresses the variations within a scene

slide48

Data Rate on 10G EPON

Each frame size was picked from corresponding Lognormal distribution, but relation between scenes is not considered

Increased and continuous burstiness

slide49

Relative I Frame Size

We use the relative sizes of the first I frame in every scene and generate subsequent I frame sizes in the scene from the first I frame size

slide50

Relative B Frame Size

We use the relative B frame sizes compared to the I frame size in a GoP

slide51

Resultant Synthetic Trace

Correlated, spike free synthetic traces with proper variations

slide52

Distribution of Frame Sizes

The frame size distributions match targeted Lognormal distributions even though they are not generated from actual Lognormal distributions

slide56

IP Mobility

Old point of attachment

New point of attachment

IP Address 1

(old location)

IP Address 2

(new location)

Subnet 1

Subnet 2

slide57

SIGMA: Seamless IP-diversity based Generalized Mobility Architecture

LM

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Step 4

Step 5

Basic idea: setup a new path to communicate with CN while maintaining the old path.

Handover process:

  • STEP 1: Layer 2 handover and obtain new IP address
  • STEP 2: Add IP addresses into the association
  • STEP 3: Redirect data packets to new IP address
  • STEP 4: Update location manager (LM)
  • STEP 5: Delete or deactivate obsolete IP address

CN

Internet

Router

MH

Subnet 2

Subnet 1

1 IP Address

2 IP Addresses

1 IP Address

slide58

Location Management using DNS

2

Location Update

DNS

Internet

3

1

Location Query

IP address 2

IP Address 1

IP Address 2

Subnet 2

Subnet 1

CN

slide59

Failure

Query time > Duration in Overlapping Area

Challenge

slide60

Mobility Model

Determine if there will be a query to DNS while updating the entry

slide65

Packet Trace

WLAN

to

CDMA

CDMA

to

WLAN

slide66

Paging SIGMA: P-SIGMA

  • PA  single ID for subnets
  • Roam within PA without updating LM
  • Active and Idle MHs update DNS at inter-PA handoff
  • Active MH updates PGW at intra-PA handoff

Location Update

Active MH

Active MH

Idle MH

Location Updates

Handoff across PA,

Update PGW and DNS

Handoff within PA,

Update PGW

Handoff within PA,

No update

slide67

Paging Algorithm

  • Low mobility  last location paging
  • High mobility  fixed paging

Low mobility subnet

High mobility subnets

MH found

MH not found

MH found

paging with MAC2

paging with MAC2

paging with MAC1

paging with MAC1

Fixed paging

Last location paging

slide68

Connection Initiation

  • PGW is lightweight LM  updated for only active hosts
  • DNS is heavyweight LM  updated for all hosts only for inter-PA handoff

name lookup

IP address X

Location Update

Connection INIT

Registration with IP address Y

Low mobility subnet

High mobility subnets

Connection INIT to Y

MH with MAC A

IP address X

IP address Y

paging for A

paging for A

slide70

Intrusion Detection Algorithm

Free Loading

Session Hijacking

slide73

Problem Solving

  • Identify new challenges for NI products
  • Using optimization techniques to maximize performance
    • Linear Programming
    • Simulated Annealing
  • Apply networking techniques
    • For intelligent data-flow
    • Energy efficiency
slide74

In a nutshell, lightRadio takes all of the essential elements of traditional base stations and antennas and shrinks them so that they can be distributed across the access network -- or cloud -- and deployed dynamically where or when capacity and coverage is needed. And the distributed network elements are connected via fiber-optic networks.

Footstep on a New Area

http://www.lightreading.com/document.asp?doc_id=204081

slide75

Programming and Development

  • Development of network-related products
    • Design intelligent protocols for routing
    • Implement upper-layer protocols using socket programming
    • Implement stack for lower-layer protocols
  • Use generic programming skill to contribute to any development
slide76

Network Programming

  • For Network layer or higher
    • Use native TCP/Datagram socket
  • For MAC layer
    • Raw socket programming for common MAC protocols
      • Send and receive data using MAC address
    • IRQ to access registers
      • Extract information from driver (not familiar)
slide77

Thank you!

Contact Information:

E-mail: [email protected]

Phone: 530-574-2090

Web: http://networks.cs.ucdavis.edu/~sayeem/

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