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Constructivism: Theoretical Perspective Proposing That Learners Construct a Body of Knowledge From Their Own Experiences. Student driven curriculum vs.Teacher/textbook driven curriculum. Constructivism. Students are active participants in their own learning rather than absorbing the knowledge at fa

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1. CONSTRUCTIVISM: A TEACHING APPROACH California State University, Bakersfield EDEL 413: Spring , 2002 Dr. Beatrice Gibbons Maureen Meade Mattias, M.A

2. Constructivism: Theoretical Perspective Proposing That Learners Construct a Body of Knowledge From Their Own Experiences Student driven curriculum vs. Teacher/textbook driven curriculum

3. Constructivism Students are active participants in their own learning rather than absorbing the knowledge at face value. Students are actively engaged in a variety of meaningful problem-solving activities with real-world applications. Students construct knowledge and meaning from active physical and mental activity.

4. Constructivism Handout What are the goals of constructivism? Popcorn read aloud

5. Constructivism Student-centered instruction. Teacher serves as a facilitator. Guide on the side rather than the sage on the stage.

6. Constructivism Scaffolding. Adults and other more competent individuals provide some form of guidance or structure that enables children to perform tasks that are in their zone of proximal development. The teacher provides ladders that lead to higher understanding, yet the students must climb these ladders.

7. To understand the concept: scaffolding used in the construction of a new building…the scaffold is an external structure that provides support for the workers ( A place where they can stand)until the building itself is strong enough to support them. As the building stability, the scaffold becomes less necessary and so is gradually removed

8. Constructivism Students have an active role in their own learning.

9. Historical Roots of Constructivism Socrates. Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (children are active and motivated learners). John Dewey’s theory of learning by doing.

10. Historical Roots of Constructivism Lev Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development is referred to as the “Socio-cultural perspective”

11. Socrates Fifth century B.C. Developed a systematic method of discovering truth by combining questioning and logical reasoning.

12. Key Ideas in Piaget’s Theory Children literally construct and reconstruct their knowledge of the world as they mature and advance their levels of cognitive functioning.

13. Key Ideas in Piaget’s Theory Children are active and motivated learners. Students continuously organize, structure, and restructure experiences in relation to existing schemas of thought.

14. Key Ideas in Piaget’s Theory Children adapt to other environments through the process of assimilation & accommodation.

15. Key Ideas in Piaget’s Theory Assimilation is a process of dealing with an object or event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme that the child has created through his/her experiences.

16. Accommodation: Two Forms Children will either modify an existing scheme to account for the new object or Children will form an entirely new scheme to deal with it.

17. Accommodation: Two Forms For example, the infant may have to open her mouth wider than usual to accommodate a teddy bear’s fat paw. The 13-year old may have to revise her existing scheme of fashion according to changes in what’s hot and what’s not. The 7 year-old may find a long, slithery thing that can’t possibly be a snake because it has 4 legs. After some research, the child develops a new scheme –salamander-for this creature.

18. John Dewey Progressivism. Education should be child-centered. Emphasizes the importance of student interest and direct experience in education. Students should be given opportunities for inquiry, discovery and problem-solving within a social context. Hands-on activities that promote. Active participation.

19. Lev Vygotsky Russian psychologist (1896-1934). Researching in Moscow during the same time as Piaget was researching.

20. Lev Vygotsky Proposed that adults promote children’s cognitive development by engaging them in meaningful and challenging activities, helping them to perform those activities successfully, and talking with them about their experiences. Believed that children’s mental, language, and social development are enhanced by learning that occurs through social interactions. Because he emphasized the importance of society and culture for promoting cognitive growth…….

21. Levine Vygotsky’s Theory His theory is sometimes called the socio-cultural perspective because he emphasized the importance of society and culture for promoting cognitive growth. Although he never had the chance to develop his theory fully, his ideas are clearly evident in our views of child development and classroom practices.

22. Key Ideas in Vygotsky’s Theory Complex mental processes begin as social activities; As children develop, they gradually internalize the processes they use in social contexts and begin to use them independently. Thought and language become increasingly interdependent in the first years of life.

23. Key Ideas in Vygotsky’s Theory Through both informal interactions and formal schooling, adults convey to children the ways in which their cultures interprets and responds to the world. Children can perform more challenging tasks when assisted by more advanced and competent individuals.

24. Additional Key Ideas: Challenging tasks promote maximum cognitive growth. Play allows children to stretch themselves cognitively.

25. Current Perspectives on Vygotsky’s Theory Vygotsky focused primarily on the processes through which children develop, rather than on the characteristics that children of particular ages are likely to exhibit during specific cognitive developmental stages: 1)Multisensory 2)Pre-operational 3) Concrete Operational 4) Formal Operational

26. Current Perspectives on Vygotsky’s Theory He did identify stages of development but portrayed them in only the most general terms.

27. Largely for These Reasons, Vygotsky’s Theory Has Been More Difficult for Researchers to Test and Either Verify or Disprove than has Piaget’s Theory. In Fact, the Most Frequent Criticisms of Vygotsky’s Ideas Are His Lack of Precision and His Inattention to Details. (Haenan, 1996;Hunt,1997,Wertsch, 1984).

28. Despite such weaknesses, many contemporary y theorists and practitioners have found Vygotsky’s theory both insightful and helpful. Children benefit from working in groups and participating in dynamic lessons that include hands-on manipulatives as well as conversations about the activity.

29. Four Principles of Vygotsky Social nature of learning Zone of proximal development Cognitive apprenticeship Mediated learning

30. Social Nature of Learning Children’s learning is enhanced when they can work with a supportive adult such as a teacher, parent, teacher’s aide or even with a more capable peer.

31. Social Nature of Learning Cooperative learning groups. Partnering of students. Cross-age tutoring /looping (NAEYC).

32. Zone of Proximal Development “ZPD” Defined as the range of tasks that one cannot yet perform independently but can perform with the help and guidance of others. (I.E tying a shoe lace). Such as engaged in tasks that a child could not accomplish on his/her own, but can complete with the assistance of a more capable peer or an adult.

33. Zone of Proximal Development “ZPD” Cooperative learning group. (3-5 Ss). Partner/paired work. State report example.

34. Cognitive Apprenticeship:can show children how adults typically think about a task or activity Student teaching. In the process of talking about various aspects of the task or problem, the teacher and the student together analyze the situation and develop the best approach to take , and the teacher models effective ways of thinking about and mentally processing the situation.

35. Mediated Learning Experience A joint discussion of a phenomenon or event that an adult and a child have mutually experienced Such as interaction encourages a child to think about eh phenomenon or event in particular ways –to attach labels to it, recognize principles that underlie it, impose certain interpretations on it

36. Self-Regulated Learning Promote self regulations by teaching children to use self talk and inner speech to direct and regulate their own behaviors especially through difficult situations. Students are taught strategies for gaining control of their own learning through self-management.

37. Self-Regulated Learning Students have knowledge of effective learning strategies and know when to use them. A self-regulated learner is a person who is able to learn well throughout life; They direct their own learning.

38. Children who talk themselves through challenging tasks pay more attention to what they are doing and are More likely to show improvements in their performances (Berk & Spuhl,1995).

39. Meichenbaum (1977, 1985) has successfully used 5 steps in teaching children how to give themselves instructions and thereby guide themselves through a new task.

41. Self-regulated Learning: Five processes that students learn 1. Setting goals. 2. Observing their your own work. 3. Keeping records of their progress. 4. Evaluate their own performance. 5. Select and deliver self-reinforcement.

42. Reciprocal Teaching A widely used technique for teacher and student (one-on –one strategy). Teaching students to monitor their reading comprehension. Students learn four specific questioning and discussion strategies that are modeled by the teacher. These questions are asked after both the teacher and student.

43. Reciprocal Teaching: Four strategies students learn 1. Think of important questions and be sure you can answer those questions. 2. Summarize the most important information that you have read. 3. Predict what the author might discuss next. 4. Point out unclear material that doesn’t make sense and see if you can make sense of it.

44. Discovery Learning Jerome Bruner Teaching method in which students are encouraged to discover principles for themselves. Active involvement in learning.

45. Discovery Learning Advantages Arouses students’ curiosity. Motivates students to work until they find answers. Develops independent problem-solving skills. Improves critical thinking skills.

46. Cooperative Learning Mixed-ability grouping. Students work together to complete a task independent of the teacher. Highlights the value of collective wisdom.

47. Cooperative Learning, cont. Showcases the contributions that every student, strong or weak, can make. Teacher sets up the developmentally appropriate activities and manipulatives and then proceeds to circulate and monitors the process.

48. Cooperative Learning, cont. Students enjoy working together. Appropriate for EL (English learners). Students learning centers promote time on task and active participation.

49. Cooperative Learning, cont. Teacher cannot easily assess the quality of individual student’s work. Students must possess adequate self-control for appropriate behavior. Expectations must be taught to students. Canter’s suggestions. For managing cooperative learning groups.

50. Cooperative Scripts A study method in which students work in pairs and take turns orally summarizing sections of material to be learned.

51. Cooperative Learning Video Discuss with your group members, after viewing this video, the question: Why is cooperative learning an effective teaching strategy?

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