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Chapter 5 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 5. The Biogeochemical Cycles. How Chemicals Cycle. Biogeochemical Cycle The complete path a chemical takes through the four major components – or reservoirs – of Earth’s systems Atmosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere. Chemical Reactions. Chemical reaction:

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Chapter 5

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Chapter 5 l.jpg

Chapter 5

The Biogeochemical Cycles

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


How chemicals cycle l.jpg

How Chemicals Cycle

  • Biogeochemical Cycle

    • The complete path a chemical takes through the four major components – or reservoirs – of Earth’s systems

      • Atmosphere

      • Hydrosphere

      • Lithosphere

      • Biosphere

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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Chemical Reactions

  • Chemical reaction:

    • The process in which new chemicals are formed from elements and compounds through chemical change

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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Biogeochemical Cycles and Life:Limiting Factors

  • Macronutrients

    • Elements required in large amounts by all life

    • Include the “big six” elements that form the fundamental building blocks of life:

      carbonoxygen

      hydrogenphosphorus

      nitrogensulfur

  • Micronutrients

    • Elements required either in

      • small amounts by all life or

      • moderate amounts by some forms of life and not all by others

  • Limiting factor

    • When chemical elements are not available at the right times, in the right amounts, and in the right concentrations relative to each other

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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The Geologic Cycle

  • The Geologic Cycle:

    • The processes responsible for formation and change of Earth materials

    • Best described as a group of cycles:

      • Tectonic

      • Hydrologic

      • Rock

      • Biochemical

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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Tectonic Cycle

  • Tectonic cycle:

    • Involves creation and destruction of the solid outer layer of Earth, the lithosphere

  • Plate tectonics:

    • The slow movement of these large segments of Earth’s outermost rock shell

    • Boundaries between plates are geologically active areas

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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Tectonic Cycle: Plate Boundaries

  • Divergent plate boundary:

    • Occurs at a spreading ocean ridge, where plates are moving away from one another

    • New lithosphere is produced (seafloor spreading)

  • Convergent plate boundary

    • Occurs when plates collide

      • Produces linear coastal mountain ranges or continental mountain ranges

  • Transform fault boundary

    • Occurs where one plate slides past another

      • San Andreas Fault in California

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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The Hydrologic Cycle

  • The Hydrologic Cycle:

    • The transfer of water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the oceans. Includes:

      • Evaporation of water from the oceans

      • Precipitation on land

      • Evaporation from land

      • Runoff from streams, rivers, and sub-surface groundwater

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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The Rock Cycle

  • The rock cycle:

    • Numerous processes that produce rocks and soils

    • Depends on other cycles:

      • tectonic cycle for energy

      • Hydrologic cycle for water

    • Rock is classified as

      • Igneous

      • Sedimentary

      • Metamorphic

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


The carbon cycle l.jpg

The Carbon Cycle

  • Carbon is the element that anchors all organic substances

  • The carbon cycle:

    • Carbon combines with and is chemically and biologically linked with the cycles of oxygen and hydrogen that form the major compounds of life

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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Fig 5.15

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e

© 2005 John Wiley and Sons Publishers


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The Carbon Cycle:Unanswered Issues

  • The Missing Carbon Sink

    • Substantial amounts of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere but apparently not reabsorbed and thus remaining unaccounted for

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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The Carbon-Silicate Cycle

  • The carbon-silicate cycle:

    • A complex biogeochemical cycle over time scales as long as one-half billion years.

    • Includes major geological processes, such as:

      • Weathering

      • Transport by ground and surface waters

      • Erosion

      • Deposition of crustal rocks

    • Believed to provide important negative feedback mechanisms that control the temperature of the atmosphere.

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


The nitrogen cycle l.jpg

The Nitrogen Cycle

  • The nitrogen cycle:

    • Cycle responsible for moving important nitrogen components through the biosphere and other Earth systems

    • Extremely important because nitrogen is required by all living things

  • Nitrogen fixation:

    • The process of converting inorganic, molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere to ammonia or nitrate

  • Denitrification:

    • The process of releasing fixed nitrogen back to molecular nitrogen

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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The Phosphorus Cycle

  • The phosphorus cycle:

    • Involves the movement of phosphorus throughout the biosphere and lithosphere

    • Important because phosphorus is an essential element for life and often is a limiting nutrient for plant growth.

Botkin & Keller

Environmental Science 5e


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