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HUMAN AND MICROBIAL INTERACTION. Dr. Gemza Shah. NATURE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN MICROBES AND HUMAN. Transient microbiota may be present for days, weeks, or months Resident microbiota permanently colonize the host. .

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Nature of interaction between microbes and human
NATURE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN MICROBES AND HUMAN

  • Transient microbiota may be present for days, weeks, or months

  • Resident microbiota permanently colonize the host.



Types of interaction between humans and microbes
TYPES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN HUMANS AND MICROBES MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • Commensalism- Microbes that do not help or harm us are commensals.

    • Example: Most of the normal flora in the body.

  • Mutualism- Microbes and host benefit

    • Example: A microbe producing vitamins in the intestine

  • Parasitism-Microbe benefits and harms the host

    • Example: Pathogens

  • Opportunistic Pathogen-Normally harmless organism becomes pathogenic in a compromised host


Commensalism
COMMENSALISM MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • Commensalism is a class of relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits but the other is neutral (there is no harm or benefit). 


Commensalism1
COMMENSALISM MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • One of the best examples would be the relationship between cattle egret and cows and sheep (or cattle). The cattle egret is called so because it is often seen with cattle and livestock. Whenever horses, cows and other such livestock graze in fields, they tend to stir up and move many insects that have been resting on the grass. The cattle egret then catches them and preys upon them. The cattle egrets benefit from this because they manage to get the insects that they wish to prey on whereas the cattle remains unaffected.


Mutualism
MUTUALISM MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • Mutualism is a positive reciprocal relationship between two species. Through this relationship both species enhance their survival, growth or fitness. To a certain extent the relationship is more a reciprocal exploitation rather than a cooperative effort on the part of the individuals involved.

  • Its simply the living together of two organisms in a mutually beneficial relationship.

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Parasitism
PARASITISM MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • A form of symbiosis in which one organism (called parasite) benefits at the expense of another organism usually of different species (called host). The association may also lead to the injury of the host.

  • Ectoparasites live on the body surface of the host; endoparasites live in their hosts' organs, tissues, or cells and often rely on a third organism (the carrier, or vector) to transmit them to the host. 


PARASITISM MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • The organism that benefits in a parasitic relationship is called the parasite.

  • The organism that is harmed in a parasitic relationship is called the host.


COMMON PARASITES MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)


PARASITE-TAENIA SAGINATA MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • Taeniasaginata, also known as the beef tapeworm, is a parasite of both cattle and humans, causing taeniasis in humans.

  • Taeniasaginata occurs where cattle are raised by infected humans maintaining poor hygiene, human feces are improperly disposed of, meat inspection programs are poor, and where meat is eaten without proper cooking.


Taenia worm i human eye parasitism
TAENIA WORM I HUMAN EYE PARASITISM MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)


Reasons for which pathogens enter into human body
REASONS FOR WHICH PATHOGENS ENTER INTO HUMAN BODY MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

Pathogenic bacteria enter through:

  • Cuts

  • Contaminated food or water

  • Close contact with an infected person

  • Contact with the faeces of an infected person

  • Breathing in the exhaled droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes

  • Indirectly, by touching contaminated surfaces – such as taps, toilet handles, toys and nappies.


Steps to infection
STEPS TO INFECTION MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)


Predisposing factors of the host
PREDISPOSING FACTORS OF THE HOST MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

Make the body more susceptible to disease

  • Short urethra in females

  • Inherited traits such as the sickle-cell gene

  • Climate and weather

  • Fatigue

  • Age

  • Lifestyle

  • Chemotherapy


BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF MICROBES MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

Production of FoodsMicrobes are a key component in both home and industrial food preparation. Lactic acid bacteria are used to make yogurt, cheese, sour cream, buttermilk and other fermented milk products. Vinegars are produced by bacterial acetic acid fermentation. Yeast is used in the manufacture of beer and wine and for the leavening of breads. It is also involved in fermentations to convert corn and other vegetable carbohydrates.


BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF MICROBES MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

Medical, Pharmaceutical and Biotechnological ApplicationsCertain microbes can help us in the fight against other microbes. In human and veterinary medicine, that are used to  treat and prevent infectious diseases, microbes are a source of antibiotics and vaccines.

Microbes and Humans The microbes that normally live in association with humans on the various surfaces of the body (called the normal flora), such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, are known to protect their hosts from infections and otherwise promote nutrition and health


HARMFUL EFFECTS OF MICROBES MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • The harmful effects of microbes include diseases, destruction of crops, food items.

  • Micro-organisms, especially molds, can trigger respiratory infections and allergies if they grow in our workplaces or homes.

  • The parasitic worm infestations can result in iron deficiency anaemia

  • The round worms, hookworms and round worms result in growth retardation in children.


INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF HUMANS MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • Under certain circumstances, he invasion of the human body by microorganisms can produce harmful and potentially lethal results which are collectively known as the infectious diseases.

  • Infection means presence and multiplication of a living organism on or within the host, the terms COLONIZATION & INFECTION HAVE THE SAME MEANING.


Causes of human death worldwide
CAUSES OF HUMAN DEATH WORLDWIDE MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)


INFECTIONS BY PATHOGENS MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • The normal flora of the human body can be disturbed in cases of nutritional deficiencies due to which the immune/defense systems of the body become weak.

  • As the immunity falls low the human body falls a prey to the pathogenic microbes

  • The intake of excessive antibiotics or strong chemotherapeutic drugs can also cause an imbalance between the pathogenic and non pathogenic microbes hence resulting in infections.


COMMON INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF HUMAN MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • The common infectious diseases are those caused by the pathogenic microbes:

    • Bacterial infectious diseases

    • Fungal Infectious Diseases

    • Parasitic Infectious Disease

    • Prion Infectious Diseases

    • Viral Infectious Diseases

  • The portal of entry can be:

    • Penetration

    • Direct contact

    • Ingestion

    • Inhalation


Source of infectious agent
SOURCE OF INFECTIOUS AGENT MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)

  • Endogenous

  • Exogenous:

    • Nosocmial infections.

    • Community acquired infections.


Microbes causing infections
MICROBES CAUSING INFECTIONS MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)


Viral infections
VIRAL INFECTIONS MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)


Fungal infections
FUNGAL INFECTIONS MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)


Parasitic infectious diseases
PARASITIC INFECTIOUS DISEASES MICROBES (NORMAL FLORA)


Relationship of the chain of infection while providing nursing care
RELATIONSHIP OF THE CHAIN OF INFECTION WHILE PROVIDING NURSING CARE

CHAIN OF INFECTION

NURSING CARE

The care provided by a skilled nurse is called nursing care. It has the utmost importance in limiting infectious diseases at this level.

By using aseptic measures which include:

1. CLEANING CONTAMINATED OBJECTS2. WASHING HANDS3. CHANGING SOILED DRESSINGS4. WEARING GLOVES


Chain of infection
CHAIN OF INFECTION NURSING CARE

  • For an infection to develop, each link of the chain must be connected. Breaking any link of the chain can stop the transmission of infection.


Normal flora of the body
NORMAL FLORA OF THE BODY NURSING CARE

  • Within the womb, a baby’s body is axenic, meaning that the uterus is sterile and free of microbes, but soon after birth, the newborn becomes colonized by microbes, most of which are beneficial to human health. These microbes are called normal flora or normal microbiota.


Existence of normal flora
EXISTENCE OF NORMAL FLORA NURSING CARE

Normal flora may:

  • Aid the host

  • Harm the host (sometimes)

  • Exist as commensals (no effect to the host)


Benefits of normal flora
BENEFITS OF NORMAL FLORA NURSING CARE

  • Normal flora may aid the host in several ways:

  • Aid in digestion of food

  • Help the development of mucosa immunity

  • Protect the host from colonization with pathogenic microbes.


Microbes residing in different body parts
MICROBES RESIDING IN DIFFERENT BODY PARTS NURSING CARE

  • The skin, especially the moist areas, such as the groin and between the toes.

  • The respiratory tract, particularly the nose.

  • Urinary tract.

  • The digestive tract, i.e. the mouth, the terminal ileum and the colon.


Types of normal flora
TYPES OF NORMAL FLORA NURSING CARE

  • Many normal flora provide direct benefits, such as making vitamins or aiding digestion. Even if normal flora microbes merely take up space and resources, they help prevent pathogens (disease causing microbes) from easily invading the body and causing illness. Although there are many different species of normal flora, these bacteria, fungi and protozoan typically fall into one of two categories:

    • Resident Microbes

    • Transient Microbes


Resident microtia
RESIDENT MICROTIA NURSING CARE

  • The body’s resident microbiota are just that — residents. These species are life-long members of the body's normal microbial community, but are not found everywhere. There are many areas of the human body that remain axenic, and, in the absence of disease, are never colonized by normal flora. Axenic areas include the body cavity, lungs, central nervous system, circulatory system and upper urogenital regions.

    • Resident microbiota typically colonize the surface of the skin, mucous membranes, digestive tract, upper respiratory system and distal portion of the urogenital system. These microbes have a commensal relationship with their host, meaning that they do not cause harm while they benefit from feeding on the cellular waste and dead cells of the host's body.


Transient microbiota
TRANSIENT MICROBIOTA NURSING CARE

  • Transient microbes are just passing through. Although they may attempt to colonize the same areas of the body as do resident microbiota, transients are unable to remain in the body for extended periods of time due to:

    • Competition from resident microbes

    • Elimination by the body’s immune system

    • Physical or chemical changes within the body that discourage the growth of transient   microbes


Opportunistic pathogens
OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGENS NURSING CARE

  • Under normal conditions, resident and transient microbes cause the host no harm. However, if the opportunity arises, some of these microbes are able to cause disease and become opportunistic pathogens. This can happen due to a number of different conditions:

    • When the immune system isn’t working properly, normal flora can overpopulate or move into areas of the body where they do not normally occur.

    • When the balance of normal microbes is disrupted, for example when a person takes broad spectrum antibiotics, microbes that are normally crowded out by resident microbes have an opportunity to take over. Tougher, antibiotic resistant bacteria, can get the upper hand.

    • Disease can result when normal flora are traumatically introduced to an area of the body that is axenic or that they do not normally occur in. Invasive medical procedures that introduce catheters or surgical wounds can allow microbes into areas of the body that are normally sterile.






Thank you

THANK YOU NURSING CARE


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