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Overview of Utah Tomography and Modeling/Migration (UTAM). Chaiwoot B., T. Crosby, G. Jiang, R. He, G. Schuster, J. Sheng, J. Yu, M. Zhou and Xiang Xiao. 2004 UTAM Consortium. ($24 K/year). Aramco BP-Amoco BGP Geotomo Chevron-Texaco Conoco-Phillips. IMP INCO Sisimage Unocal

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Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Overview of Utah Tomography and Modeling/Migration(UTAM)

Chaiwoot B., T. Crosby, G. Jiang, R. He, G. Schuster,

J. Sheng, J. Yu, M. Zhou and Xiang Xiao


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

2004 UTAM Consortium

($24 K/year)

Aramco

BP-Amoco

BGP

Geotomo

Chevron-Texaco

Conoco-Phillips

IMP

INCO

Sisimage

Unocal

Veritas

Western-Geco


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

UTAM

  • Started 1988

  • Goal: Innovative Imaging/Modeling

  • 10-18 sponsors/year

  • $24,000/year membership

  • Benefits: Yearly meeting: Feb. 3-4

Annual+midyr Report

Software


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Interferometric Imaging below Salt

And Overburden

Jianhua Yu, Min Zhou

Gerard T. Schuster

University of Utah


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Interferometric Imaging

Synthetic Data

Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Interferometric Imaging

Synthetic & Field Data

Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Salt v(x,y,z) not known

Static errors

?

Problems with VSP or CDP Salt Imaging Quality?


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Interferometric Imaging

Synthetic & Field Data

Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

How do you remove kinematic effects of propagating

through unintersting parts of medium?

Uninteresting Part of Medium


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Pick Direct Arrival Time T and shift all

Traces by T

T

M

{

M

M

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

T

M

{

Shifting Traces Removes Kinematic Effects

Of Propagating through Uninteresting Parts of Medium

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Shifting Traces Removes Kinematic Effects

Of Propagating through Uninteresting Parts of Medium

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Shifting Traces Removes Kinematic Effects

Of Propagating through Uninteresting Parts of Medium.

.

Source Moved to Depth

Can replace time-shifted traces by crosscorrelograms

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Can replace time-shifted traces by crosscorrelograms

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Can replace time-shifted traces by crosscorrelograms

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Can replace time-shifted traces by crosscorrelograms

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Can replace time-shifted traces by crosscorrelograms

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Can replace time-shifted traces by crosscorrelograms

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Can replace time-shifted traces by crosscorrelograms

M


Interferometric summary

Eliminates source statics and uninteresting parts of the medium.

Lower source to be near target.

Interferometric Summary


Interferometric summary1

Eliminates source+rec statics and uninteresting parts of the medium.

Lower source+rec. to be near target.

Interferometric Summary

Reference layer


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Interferometric Imaging

Synthetic CDP Data & Field Data

Conclusions


Shots 280 shot interval 10 m receivers 300 receiver interval 10 m temporal interval 1ms

X (km)

3

0

0

Depth (km)

Shots: 280

Shot interval: 10 m

Receivers: 300

Receiver interval: 10 m

Temporal interval:1ms

1.8

Salt model


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (km)

0

3

0

Depth (km)

1.8

True velocity model


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (km)

0

3

0

Pick Traveltime

Subsalt Reference

Reflection

Time (s)

3

CSG 100


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (km)

0

3

0

Depth (km)

1.8

Kirmig with inaccurate salt dome boundary


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (km)

0

3

0

Depth (km)

1.8

RT migration with inaccurate salt dome boundary


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (km)

X (km)

X (km)

3

3

3

0

0

0

0

Depth (km)

1.8

Standard mig

Correct velocity

Standard mig

Incorrect velocity

RT mig


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Interferometric Imaging

Synthetic HSP Data & Field Data

Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

HSP Interferometric Imaging

Salt Model

HSP Shot Gather

0 km

0 km

1.2 km

1.2 s

0 km

5 km

Mig. Image+Corr. Vel.

0 km

0 km

0 km

5 km

1.2 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

HSP Interferometric Imaging

Salt Model

HSP Shot Gather

0 km

0 km

1.2 km

1.2 s

0 km

5 km

Mig. Image+Corr. Vel.

0 km

0 km

0 km

HSP Interferometric Imaging

5 km

1.2 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

HSP Interferometric Imaging

Salt Model

HSP Shot Gather

0 km

0 km

1.2 km

1.2 s

0 km

5 km

Mig. Image+Corr. Vel.

HSP Image

0 km

0 km

0 km

5 km

1.2 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

HSP Interferometric Imaging

Salt Model

HSP Shot Gather

0 km

0 km

1.2 km

1.2 s

0 km

5 km

Mig. Image+Corr. Vel.

HSP Image

SWI-HSP Image

0 km

0 km

0 km

Garbage

5 km

1.2 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

HSP Interferometric Imaging

Salt Model

HSP Shot Gather

0 km

0 km

1.2 km

1.2 s

0 km

5 km

Mig. Image+Corr. Vel.

HSP Image

SWI-HSP Image

0 km

0 km

0 km

No Need for V

Garbage

5 km

1.2 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km

0 km

1.2 km


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Interferometric Imaging

Synthetic VSP Data & Field Data

Conclusions


0 km 2 km

VSP Data

Image Below Salt Without

Knowing Salt Velocity

0 km2 km

0 km 3 km


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Interferometric Image

X (m)

1000

1400

950

Depth (m)

1950


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Well

256 Sources

V = 1.5 - 3.0 km/s

0

Depth (km)

SEG/EAGE Model

2

0

X (km)

3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (km)

1.4

2.4

Xcross 60

X (km)

0

2.4

0

Time (s)

CRG 60

3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Xcorr Mig (45)

Xcorr. Mig(15’)

Kirchh Mig (45)

0.5

Depth (km)

2.0

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

X (km)


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Interferometric Imaging

Synthetic VSP Data & Field Data

Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Depth (ft)

30

900

0

Raw Data(CRG15)

Time (s)

0.3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Depth (ft)

30

900

0

Ghosts

Time (s)

0.3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (ft)

X (ft)

0

400

0

400

200

Standard mig

Xcorr. mig

Depth (ft)

1300


Summary

Salt + Overburden

SUMMARY

  • Interferometric Tomography

  • Interferometric Imaging: Kinematically equivalent to sources-receivers below datum

  • True wave equation statics w/o V(x,y,z)

  • HSP, VSP and CDP data


Summary1

SUMMARY

  • Interferometric Tomography

  • Interferometric Imaging: Kinematically equivalent to sources-receivers below datum

  • True wave equation statics w/o V(x,y,z)

  • HSP, VSP and CDP data

Salt + Overburden


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Increased illumination coverage in the VSP image. VSP ->CDP

Eliminate the static errors in the well

No need to know source (RVSP) or receiver location (VSP)

Half sensitivity to velocity migration errors than mult. migration by “mirrors”.

Crosscorrelogram Migration Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Xcorr

Kirchhoff

Be careful about virtual multiple

Ghost is weaker than primary

Extra summation compared to KM

vs

Narrow Angle

Wide Angle

Conclusions

Loss of some lateral resolution?


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Crosscorrelation Migration

SEG/EAGE Model

2-D RVSP Field Data

Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Well

256 Sources

V = 1.5 - 3.0 km/s

0

Depth (km)

SEG/EAGE Model

2

0

X (km)

3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Acquisition Parameters:

Well location: (1.5 km, 0 km)

Source interval: 10 m

Source number: 256

Receiver interval: 10 m

Receiver depth range: 0.1 -1 km

Receiver number: 91

Sample interval: 1 ms

Recording length: 3 s

Well

0

1 km

Depth (km)

2

0

X (km)

3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Depth (km)

0.2

0.9

0

CSG 160

Time (s)

3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Depth (km)

0.2

0.9

0

Ghosts (CSG 160)

Time (s)

3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (km)

1.4

2.4

Xcross 60

X (km)

0

2.4

0

Time (s)

CRG 60

3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Xcorr Mig (45)

Xcorr. Mig(15’)

Kirchh Mig (45)

0.5

Depth (km)

2.0

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

X (km)


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

0

Well Depth (m)

900

50

Raw Data

Static errors (ms)

-50

Static Errors at Well


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migration

Static Error: 25 ms

Static Error: 50ms

2.5

X (km)

Static Error: 0

0.5

Depth (km)

2.0

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Crosscorrelation Migration

Static Error: 25ms

Static Error: 50 ms

2.5

X (km)

Static Error: 0

0.5

Depth (km)

2.0

0.5

2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Velocity Model

Primary vs Multiple Image

0

Depth (km)

11

16

16

0

0

X (km)

X (km)


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Contents

Motivation

Crosscorrelation Imaging Condition

SEG/EAGE Model

2-D RVSP Field Data

Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Depth (ft)

30

900

0

Raw Data(CRG15)

Time (s)

0.3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Depth (ft)

30

900

0

Ghosts

Time (s)

0.3


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Field Data (CSG 25)

Trace No.

5

24

xcorr data (muted)

0.2

Time (s)

1.2

Master trace

Master trace

Trace No.

5

24

0.5

Raw data (muted)

Time (s)

1.4


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (ft)

X (ft)

0

400

0

400

200

Standard mig

Xcorr. mig

Depth (ft)

1300


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Well data

Xcorr.

Exxon Data

Standard

0

Depth (ft)

1100


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Outline

Motivation

Crosscorrelation Migration

SEG/EAGE Model

2-D RVSP Field Data

Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Increased illumination coverage in the VSP image. VSP ->CDP

Eliminate the static errors in the well

No need to know source (RVSP) or receiver location (VSP)

Half sensitivity to velocity migration errors than mult. migration by “mirrors”.

Crosscorrelogram Migration Conclusions


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Xcorr

Kirchhoff

Be careful about virtual multiple

Ghost is weaker than primary

Extra summation compared to KM

vs

Narrow Angle

Wide Angle

Conclusions

Loss of some lateral resolution?


Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments

UTAM sponsors

Exxon for 2-D field data

J. Claerbout + J. Rickett

II evolved from daylight imaging


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

X (ft)

X (ft)

0

400

0

400

200

Standard mig

Xcorr. mig

Depth (ft)

1300


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Geological Model

X(km)

0 4

0

Depth(km)

3

(2001)


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Migration Result Using Crosscorrelation Imaging

X (km)

1.6

2.1

0

Too simple?

Widen illumination?

If there are static errors in well?

Time (s)

2.2


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Widen the illumination coverage in the VSP image

Equivalent surface geometry

Xcorr

VSP geometry

Why Use Crosscorrelation Migration?


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Seismic Ghost Reflection

Ghost

Direct

Find R(x,z) but not know source location

?


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Master

Ghost

}

t

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

Direct

Direct has kinematics of primary reflection

Direct

gx

gx

Mx

g

x

x

x

M

M

Seismic Interferogram: Correlate Traces

Seismic Ghost Reflection

Ghost

Direct

1

2

M


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Ghost

Direct Wave

Primary

Well

Receiver

Source

RVSP


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Ghost Reflection Imaging Condition:

g

s

x


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

After Crosscorrelation of Two Traces at Locations g & g’

g

s

x


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

After Crosscorrelation of Two Traces at Locations g & g’

g

s

x


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

After Crosscorrelation of Two Traces at Locations g & g’

g

s

x


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Recall Green’s Theorem

Every Surface Point = Source Point


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Why is there insensitivity to static errors in the well?

g’

g

s

Static errors

x


Crosscorrelogram migration

Crosscorrelation Imaging Condition

Migrated Image

Crosscorrelograms

Crosscorrelogram Migration


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Field Data

Well data

Xcorr. Migration

0

Depth (ft)

1100


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Exxon Data

Well data

Standard Migration

0

Depth (ft)

1100


Interferometric summary2

Wider, taller coverage. Eliminates well statics and uninteresting parts of the medium.

{

Above Source

Imaging

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

Wider Coverage

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Interferometric Summary

VSP


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

Kirchhoff Migrate psuedo-shot gathers

m(x) = (g, t + t )

gx

gx

Mx

M

g

M

Shifting Traces Removes Kinematic Effects

Of Propagating through Uninteresting Parts of Medium.

.

Source Moved to Depth

g

M

Can replace time-shifted traces by crosscorrelograms


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

0

10

Distance (km)

CDP Interferometric Imaging

Datuming with Reflections

KM image with Incorrect velocity

s

g

Model

km/s

0

3.2

m

3.0

Depth (km)

2.8

10

0

10

0

10

Distance (km)

Distance (km)


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

0

10

Distance (km)

CDP Interferometric Imaging

Datuming with Reflections

KM image with Incorrect velocity

s

g

Model

km/s

0

3.2

m

3.0

Depth (km)

2.8

10

0

10

0

10

Distance (km)

Distance (km)


Overview of utah tomography and modeling migration utam

0

10

Distance (km)

CDP Interferometric Imaging

Datuming with Reflections

KM image with Incorrect velocity

s

g

Model

km/s

0

3.2

m

3.0

Depth (km)

2.8

10

0

10

0

10

Distance (km)

Distance (km)


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