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Matter Unit. Periodic Table Notes. The Periodic Table. Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907). 1894-1918. Ancient Times. H. He. Midd. -1700. 1923-1961. 1965-. 1735-1843. 1843-1886. Li. Be. B. C. N. O. F. Ne. Na. Mg. Al. Si. P. S. Cl. Ar. K. Ca. Sc. Ti. V. Cr. Mn. Fe.

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Matter Unit

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Matter Unit

Periodic Table Notes


The Periodic Table

Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907)


1894-1918

Ancient Times

H

He

Midd. -1700

1923-1961

1965-

1735-1843

1843-1886

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

Rb

Sr

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

I

Xe

Cs

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Db

Sg

Bh

Hs

Mt

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

Th

Pa

U

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

Discovering the Periodic Table

Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989


Vertically intoGroups

Horizontally IntoPeriods

Elements are arranged:


Why?


If you looked at one atom of every element in a group you would see…


Each atom of a group has the same number of electrons in its outermost shell.

  • An example…

  • Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level.

    • The number of “valence” electrons in an atom affects the way an atom bonds.

    • The way an atom bonds determines many properties of the element.

    • This is why elements within a group usually have similar properties.


The group 2 atoms all have 2 electrons in their outer shells

Be (Beryllium)

Atom

Mg (Magnesium) Atom


If you looked at an atom from each element in a period

you would see…


Each atom of the period has the same number of electron shells or energy levels.

An example…


The period 4 atoms each have 4 electroncontaining shells

4th Shell

K (Potassium)

Atom

Kr (Krypton)

Atom

Fe (Iron) Atom


Each group has distinct properties

  • The periodic Table is divided into several groups based on the properties of different atoms.


http://www.lyon.edu/webdata/Users/DMcDowell/GenChem/alkalishow.html

Alkali Metals

  • Soft, silvery colored metals

  • Very reactive!!!


Group 1A: Alkali Metals

Reaction of potassium + H2O

Cutting sodium metal

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m55kgyApYrY&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active


Alkali Metals reacting with water:

  • Li (Lithium)– least reactive

  • Na (Sodium)

  • K (Potassium)

  • Rb (Rubidium)

  • Cs (Cesium)–more reactive

What would you expect from Francium?!?!


Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals

Magnesium

Magnesium oxide


Alkaline Earth Metals

  • Silvery-White Metals

  • Fairly reactive

  • Many are found in rocks in the earth’s crust


Transition Metals

  • Most are good conductors of electricity

  • Malleable (easily bent/hammered into wires or sheets)


How many things can you think of that have Transition Metals in them?


  • Metalloids

  • Lie on either side of the “staircase”

  • They share properties with both metals and non-metals

  • Si (Silicon) and Ge (Germanium) are very important “semi-conductors”


Metalloids

Metals and Nonmetals

H

1

He

2

1

Li

3

Be

4

B

5

C

6

N

7

O

8

F

9

Ne

10

Nonmetals

2

Na

11

Mg

12

Al

13

Si

14

P

15

S

16

Cl

17

Ar

18

3

K

19

Ca

20

Sc

21

Ti

22

V

23

Cr

24

Mn

25

Fe

26

Co

27

Ni

28

Cu

29

Zn

30

Ga

31

Ge

32

As

33

Se

34

Br

35

Kr

36

4

METALS

Rb

37

Sr

38

Y

39

Zr

40

Nb

41

Mo

42

Tc

43

Ru

44

Rh

45

Pd

46

Ag

47

Cd

48

In

49

Sn

50

Sb

51

Te

52

I

53

Xe

54

5

Cs

55

Ba

56

Hf

72

Ta

73

W

74

Re

75

Os

76

Ir

77

Pt

78

Au

79

Hg

80

Tl

81

Pb

82

Bi

83

Po

84

At

85

Rn

86

*

6

Fr

87

Ra

88

Rf

104

Db

105

Sg

106

Bh

107

Hs

108

Mt

109

W

7

La

57

Ce

58

Pr

59

Nd

60

Pm

61

Sm

62

Eu

63

Gd

64

Tb

65

Dy

66

Ho

67

Er

68

Tm

69

Yb

70

Lu

71

Ac

89

Th

90

Pa

91

U

92

Np

93

Pu

94

Am

95

Cm

96

Bk

97

Cf

98

Es

99

Fm

100

Md

101

No

102

Lr

103


What are semiconductors used in?


Nonmetals

  • Brittle

  • Do not conduct electricity


Halogens

  • Nonmetals

  • Most are poisonous

  • Fairly reactive – react with alkali metals (eg) Na+ and Cl-


Chlorine Gas was used as a chemical weapon during World War I.

It was used by the Germans in World War II.


Chlorine Gas

  • The Germans were the first to use Chlorine gas at Ypres in 1915

  • Chlorine gas is a lung irritant

  • The symptoms of gas poisoning are bright red lips, and a blue face

  • People affected die a slow death by suffocation

  • Decades later men who thought they had survived the war died from lung diseases such as Emphysema


CHLORINE


Noble Gases

  • Nonmetals

  • Unreactive

  • Gases at room temperature


Jellyfish lamps made with noble gases artist- Eric Ehlenberger


Colors Noble Gases produce in lamp tubes:

  • Ne (Neon): orange-red

  • Ar (Argon): pale lavender

  • He (Helium): pale peach

  • Kr (Krypton):pale silver

  • Xe (Xenon): pale, deep blue


  • The lanthanide series can be found naturally on Earth.

  • Only one element in the series is radioactive.

  • Also called rare-earth metals or inner-transition elements.

  • You might find some of these elements in superconductors, glass production, or lasers

  • The actinide series is much different.

  • They are all radioactive

  • Some are not found in nature.

  • Some of the elements with higher atomic numbers have only been made in labs.

Lanthanide Series

Actinide Series


ELEMENTS THAT EXIST ASDIATOMIC MOLECULES

Remember:

The “GENS”

These elements exist as PAIRS when ALONE.

Hydrogen (H2)

Nitrogen (N2)

Oxygen (O2)

Halogens

(F2, Cl2, Br2, I2)

(P4 and S8)


Diatomic Elements

H2

He

Ne

Li

O2

F2

N2

Be

B

C

Ar

S

Al

P

Na

Si

Cl2

S

Mg

Sc

Ca

Mn

Co

Cu

Se

K

Ti

Cr

Fe

Ni

Zn

Ga

As

Br2

V

Ge

Kr

Y

Sr

Tc

Rh

Ag

Te

Rb

Zr

Mo

Ru

Pd

Cd

In

Sb

Nb

Sn

Xe

I2

Tl

La

Ba

Re

Ir

Au

Po

At

Cs

Hf

W

Os

Pt

Hg

Tl

Bi

Ta

Pb

Rn

Fr

Ra

Ac

Nd

Pr

Gd

Dy

Er

Ce

Pm

Eu

Tb

Ho

Tm

Yb

Sm

Lu

U

Pa

Cm

Cf

Fm

Th

Np

Am

Bk

Es

Md

No

Pu

Lr


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