Gymnosperms and angiosperms
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Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Biology 112 Presentation 4. Gymnosperms. Include pines, spruce, juniper, fir and other cone bearing plants. Thin, needle-like leaves are a special adaptation to hot-dry summers and cold winters, with moderate rainfall.

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Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

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Gymnosperms and angiosperms

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Biology 112

Presentation 4


Gymnosperms

Gymnosperms

  • Include pines, spruce, juniper, fir and other cone bearing plants.

  • Thin, needle-like leaves are a special adaptation to hot-dry summers and cold winters, with moderate rainfall.

  • Needles retain moisture because of their thick waxy cuticle.

  • Their roots extend over a wide surface area, as opposed to penetrating deep into the soil.


Angiosperms

Angiosperms

  • Comprise more than all the other plant division combined (over 250 000 known.)

  • Many angiosperms and insects have become completely inter-dependant.

  • This process of joint evolution of two or more species is called coevolution.


Common characteristics of flowers

Common Characteristics of Flowers

  • Stamen is the male part of the flower. It consists of:

    • A thin stalk called a filament

    • An anther where pollen is formed

  • The carpel, or pistil is the female part of the flower. It consists of:

    • The stigma – sticky part which pollen lands and grows

    • The style – slender stalk pollen grains travel to ovary

    • The ovary – contains ovule


  • More common characteristics of flowers

    More Common Characteristics of Flowers

    • Sepals – small green leaf-like structures that surround the carpel and stamen

    • Petals – colorful part that attracts pollinators

    • Nectary – small swelling at base of each petal


    Complete or incomplete flowers

    Complete, or Incomplete - Flowers

    • Complete flowers contain carpels, stamens, petals, and sepals.

      • I.e. lilies, tomatoes, etc.

    • Incomplete flowers are missing at least one of these structures.

    • In most species the petals die off after fertilization.


    Reproduction

    Reproduction

    • Refer to your handout for life cycle.

    • Do worksheet.


    Monocots

    Monocots

    • Monocotyledons is an angiosperm whose seeds have only one cotyledon or seed leaf.

      • Vascular bundles distributed throughout stem

      • Veins parallel

      • Flowers in 3s or multiples of 3


    Dicots

    Dicots

    • Dicotyledon is an angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons or seeds leaves.

      • Vascular bundles arranged in ring

      • Veins netlike

      • Flowers in multiples of 4s or 5s


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