The Sociological Perspective

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What is Sociology?Developing the sociological imagination.The Development / History of SociologyMajor Theoretical Perspectives. 1. The Sociological Point of View. What is Sociology?. SociologyThe systematic study of social behavior in human groups.Examines the influence of social relationships

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The Sociological Perspective

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1. The Sociological Perspective SOCIOLOGY 1

2. 1 The Sociological Point of View

3. What is Sociology? Sociology The systematic study of social behavior in human groups. Examines the influence of social relationships on people’s attitudes and behavior. Studies how societies are established and change.

4. What is Sociology? The Sociological Imagination Definition: An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society. It is the ability to view our own society as an outsider might, rather than from the perspective of our limited experiences and cultural biases. “Find the F” cards

5. What do you see?

10. What is Sociology? Sociology is the study of “Common Sense” Knowledge that relies on “common sense” is not always reliable. Sociologists must test and analyze each piece of information that they use.

12. What is sociology? Number of police in a patrol car Which is safer? or

13. Development of Sociology Impact of the Industrial Age on society Move to urban areas Less sense of belonging or connecting Changes in the workplace Pace of society / stress Small role of government Barter to cash

14. The Development of Sociology Early Thinkers Auguste Comte 1798–1857 --Coined the term sociology as the science of human behavior; “Father of Sociology” Herbert Spencer 1820–1903 --Studied “evolutionary” changes in society “Social Darwinism”

15. The Development of Sociology Early Thinkers Émile Durkheim 1858–1917 --Pioneered work on suicide Max Weber 1864–1920 --”Interactionist” Karl Marx 1818–1883 --Emphasized the importance of the economy and of conflict among classes in society

16. The Development of Sociology Modern Developments Charles Horton Cooley 1864–1929 --Pioneered work on small group interaction within society Jane Addams 1860–1935 --Combined sociological study with activism Robert Merton 1910–2003 --Works on deviant behavior and crime

17. What is Sociological Theory? Theory: An attempt to explain events, forces, materials, ideas or behavior in a comprehensive manner. Sociological Theories: Seek to explain problems, actions, or behavior. (religion / suicide study)

18. Major Theoretical Perspectives Functionalist Perspective (Macro) Analyzes how parts of society are structured to maintain its stability. Views society as a vast network of connected parts, each of which helps to maintain the system as a whole. (body) Each part must contribute or it will not be passed on from one generation to the next.

19. Major Theoretical Perspectives Functionalism:

20. Major Theoretical Perspectives Functionalist Perspective (related terms) Manifest Functions of institutions are open, stated, conscious functions. They involve the intended, recognized, consequences of an aspect of society. Latent Functions are unconscious or unintended functions and may reflect hidden purposes of an institution. A dysfunction is an element or a process of society that may actually disrupt a social system or lead to a decrease in stability.

21. Major Theoretical Perspectives Conflict Perspective (Macro) Social behavior is explained best by understanding the flaws in society & conflict between groups / classes. Conflict can be social, economic, political, etc. Groups that control the wealth, power, & prestige will create a society to benefit them.

22. Major Theoretical Perspectives Conflict Theory:

23. Titanic: Casualties by Class

24. Major Theoretical Perspectives Conflict Perspective The View of Karl Marx: Conflict is seen not merely as a class phenomenon but as a part of everyday life in all societies.

26. Major Theoretical Perspectives Interactionist Perspective (Micro) Studies the forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole. Interactionism views human beings as living in a world of “meaningful” objects - (material things, actions, other people, relationships, symbols, etc) Societies / groups may interpret thing “meanings” differently.

27. Major Theoretical Perspectives Interactionism

28. Interactionism: In the news today: 9-21

29. Modern Perspectives Feminist Perspective Definition: Views inequity in gender as central to all behavior and organization.

30. Modern Perspectives The New Right Perspective Social problems are largely a result in the breakdown of small communities and the family. Government programs intended to help are seen as shifting peoples’ attitudes towards personal responsibility and the role of government.

31. Major Perspectives The Sociological Approach Sociologists make use of all the perspectives. Each perspective offers unique insights into the same issue.

32. Criticism towards Sociology “Left of center” politics Vocabulary – “social justice / economic justice” “affordable housing / affordable health care” “livable wage” Providing information vs Activism Example: Inequality needs “fixing” Minimum wage

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