Atomic theory
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Atomic Theory. History of the Discoveries Related to the Atom Mr. Addison. Timeline of Atomic Theory. 450 BC 1800’s _________________________________________________________. Democritus: matter was made of “atoms”.

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Atomic theory

Atomic Theory

History of the Discoveries Related to the Atom

Mr. Addison


Timeline of atomic theory

Timeline of Atomic Theory

450 BC 1800’s

_________________________________________________________

Democritus:

matter was made of “atoms”

Dalton:

proposed 5 components to an Atomic Theory.


Dalton s theory foundation of future investigations

Dalton’s Theory: Foundation of Future Investigations

  • All matter consists of tiny particles.

  • Atoms are indestructible and unchangeable.

  • Elements are characterized by the mass of their atoms.

  • When elements react, their atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios.

  • When elements react, their atoms sometimes combine in more than one simple, whole-number ratio.


Atomic theory 1897 1920

Atomic Theory 1897-1920

___________________________________

Planck quanta 1901

Bohr quantum model 1913

Rutherford nucleus 1911

Thompson negative charge in the atom 1897


Contributions to modern atomic theory

Contributions to Modern Atomic Theory

De Broglie Wave nature of matter

1924

_____________________________________

Gell-Mann Quarks 1962

Heisenberg e- is a wave and a particle 1926

Schrodinger e- orbits as a wave 1926

Chadwick neutron 1932


Experiments that characterized particles of the atom

Experiments that Characterized Particles of the Atom

  • Thompson Cathode Ray tube:

    • Electrons are negative in charge

    • http://chemmovies.unl.edu/ChemAnime/CATHRAYD/CATHRAYD.html

  • Rutherford’s Gold Foil:

    • Nucleus contains protons and is very small/dense

    • http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/chemistry/gilbert/tutorials/ch3.htm

  • Bohr model:

    • Electrons travel in certain paths

    • http://chemmovies.unl.edu/ChemAnime/BOHRQD/BOHRQD.html


3 basic parts of the atom

3 Basic Parts of the Atom.


Particles of the atom to date

Particles of the Atom to date:

  • Nucleus

    • Protons = p+ = 3 quarks

    • Neutrons= n0 = 3 quarks

  • Electron Cloud

    • Electrons =e- (particle/wave)

Held together by a force called : Gluon


Types of quarks determine charge http nobelprize org educational games physics matter 1 html

Types of Quarks Determine Chargehttp://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/matter/1.html

Quarks = up (+2/3) and down (-1/3)

p+ = 2ups and 1 downn0 = 2 down and 1 up

+2 +2-1 = +1 -1-1+2 = 0

3 3 3 3 3 3

Gluon forces between quarks


Predicting the location of an electron in an atom

Predicting the Location of an Electron in an Atom:

  • Bohr proposed 4 characteristics to consider to predict the location of an electron.

    • l = the distance from the nucleus

    • m = the shape of the orbital in which the e- occupies. (s,p,d,f)

    • n = axis the orbital occupies. (x, y, z)

    • s =spin of the e- (+1/2 , -1/2)


Distance from the nucleus

Distance from the nucleus:

  • Levels 1-7: When looking at the periodic table, can be determined by the period number.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7


Shape of the orbital on the x y z axis

Shape of the Orbital on the x,y,z Axis

  • The number of electrons in a particular region determines the shape.

    s shape 2e- p shape 6e-


Shape of the orbital on the x y z axis1

Shape of the Orbital on the x,y,z Axis

d shape 10e- f shape 14e-


Atom with overlapping orbitals

Atom with overlapping orbitals


Spin of the electron

Spin of the Electron

  • http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/applets/a2.html


Do electrons behave as a particle or as wave

Do Electrons behave as a particle or as wave?

Definition of Light:

  • http://chemmovies.unl.edu/ChemAnime/DEFLITD/DEFLITD.html


Einstein and bohr

Einstein and Bohr

Bohr:

-Predictability

Einstein:

-causality


Electrons travel in waves

Electrons travel in waves


Electron behavior as it moves to other energy levels

Electron behavior as it moves to other energy levels.

  • This emitted energy is equal to the difference between the high and low energy levels, and may be seen as light.

Light emission tutorial http://www2.wwnorton.com/college/chemistry/gilbert/tutorials/ch3.htm


Electrons are particles photons

Electrons are Particles / Photons

  • Electrons travel in discreet packets called photons.

  • To describe these unique packets or quantities of energy the term “quanta” is used.

  • Every element on the periodic table is made up of atoms with a unique signature of spectral lines


Electrons exhibit particle and wave like behavior duality

Electrons exhibit particle and wave like behavior“Duality”


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