Carbon compounds
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Carbon Compounds. Saturated Hydrocarbons. A Hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon. In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds. Alkane is another name for a saturated hydrocarbon. Ethane. Characteristics of Hydrocarbons.

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Saturated hydrocarbons
Saturated Hydrocarbons

  • A Hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon.

  • In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds.

  • Alkane is another name for a saturated hydrocarbon.



Characteristics of hydrocarbons
Characteristics of Hydrocarbons

  • Factors that determine the properties of a hydrocarbon are:

  • The number of carbon atoms

  • How the atoms are arranged:

    Straight chain

    Branched chain

    Ring


Straight chains
Straight Chains

  • A hydrocarbon can contain one carbon atom, as in methane or thousands of carbon atoms, as in cellulose



Branched chains
Branched Chains

  • The structural formula for certain alkanes can differ.

  • Compounds with the same molecularformula but different structural formulas are isomers.


The ring
The Ring

  • Carbons can be arranged in a ring, such as cyclobutane.


Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

  • A hydrocarbon that contains one or more double or triple bonds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.

  • There are three types of unsaturated hydrocarbons alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons.


Alkenes
Alkenes

  • Many fruit bearing plants produce ethene, which controls the rate at which fruits ripening.


Alkynes
Alkynes

  • Alkynes are the most reactive hydrocarbon compounds.

  • They produce extremely high temperatures while burning.


Aromatic hydrocarbons
Aromatic Hydrocarbons

  • These alternating single and double bond hydrocarbons form a ring.

  • Many of these compounds have strong aromas or odors.


Fossil fuels
Fossil Fuels

  • Three types of fossil fuels are coal, petroleum, and naturalgas.

  • The primary products of the complete combustion of fossil fuels are carbon dioxide and water


Substituted hydrocarbons
Substituted Hydrocarbons

  • The functional group in an alcohol is a hydroxyl group, -OH.

  • The functional group in an organic acid is a carboxyl group,-COOH.

  • The functional group in an amine is an amino group, -NH2


Alcohols
Alcohols

  • When a halocarbon reacts with a hydroxyl group.


Polymers
Polymers

  • Polymers can be classified as natural polymers or synthetic polymers.

  • Rubber, nylon, and polyethylene are three examples of compounds than can be synthesized.


Types
Types

  • Four types of polymers produced in plant and animal cells are:

  • Starches

  • Cellulose

  • Nucleic acids

  • Proteins


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