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Carbon Compounds. Saturated Hydrocarbons. A Hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon. In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds. Alkane is another name for a saturated hydrocarbon. Ethane. Characteristics of Hydrocarbons.

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Presentation Transcript
saturated hydrocarbons
Saturated Hydrocarbons
  • A Hydrocarbon is an organic compound that contains only the elements hydrogen and carbon.
  • In a saturated hydrocarbon, all the bonds are single bonds.
  • Alkane is another name for a saturated hydrocarbon.
characteristics of hydrocarbons
Characteristics of Hydrocarbons
  • Factors that determine the properties of a hydrocarbon are:
  • The number of carbon atoms
  • How the atoms are arranged:

Straight chain

Branched chain

Ring

straight chains
Straight Chains
  • A hydrocarbon can contain one carbon atom, as in methane or thousands of carbon atoms, as in cellulose
branched chains
Branched Chains
  • The structural formula for certain alkanes can differ.
  • Compounds with the same molecularformula but different structural formulas are isomers.
the ring
The Ring
  • Carbons can be arranged in a ring, such as cyclobutane.
unsaturated hydrocarbons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
  • A hydrocarbon that contains one or more double or triple bonds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
  • There are three types of unsaturated hydrocarbons alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons.
alkenes
Alkenes
  • Many fruit bearing plants produce ethene, which controls the rate at which fruits ripening.
alkynes
Alkynes
  • Alkynes are the most reactive hydrocarbon compounds.
  • They produce extremely high temperatures while burning.
aromatic hydrocarbons
Aromatic Hydrocarbons
  • These alternating single and double bond hydrocarbons form a ring.
  • Many of these compounds have strong aromas or odors.
fossil fuels
Fossil Fuels
  • Three types of fossil fuels are coal, petroleum, and naturalgas.
  • The primary products of the complete combustion of fossil fuels are carbon dioxide and water
substituted hydrocarbons
Substituted Hydrocarbons
  • The functional group in an alcohol is a hydroxyl group, -OH.
  • The functional group in an organic acid is a carboxyl group,-COOH.
  • The functional group in an amine is an amino group, -NH2
alcohols
Alcohols
  • When a halocarbon reacts with a hydroxyl group.
polymers
Polymers
  • Polymers can be classified as natural polymers or synthetic polymers.
  • Rubber, nylon, and polyethylene are three examples of compounds than can be synthesized.
types
Types
  • Four types of polymers produced in plant and animal cells are:
  • Starches
  • Cellulose
  • Nucleic acids
  • Proteins
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