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# Inferences - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

0. Inferences. How do readers infer correctly when they are reading passages? Why do readers need to develop inference skills?. 0. Lesson 1: What is inferring?. Making an assumption based on verbal and nonverbal clues Judging or concluding that something is true

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### Inferences

How do readers infer correctly when they are reading passages?

Why do readers need to develop inference skills?

Lesson 1: What is inferring?

• Making an assumption based on verbal and nonverbal clues

• Judging or concluding that something is true

• Analyzing facts and coming to a logical outcome based on the evidence

• Drawing conclusions (reading between the lines)

• Realizing “Oh, now I get it!”

• Students will be group in pairs

• Without peeking, one partner will draw a charade slip

• Both partners will read the action and discuss quietly how to act it out.

• You may look the word up in the dictionary if you do not know the meaning of the word.

• Each partner takes a turn acting out the action for the rest of the class.

• The audience raises their hand to be called on to guess the action

• Partners call on students until someone guesses correctly.

• If a synonym is given the charade partners will draw an “S” in the air.

• The audience will brainstorm synonyms to determine the exact synonym

How did playing our game relate to our definitions of inferring?

• Making an assumption based on verbal and nonverbal clues

• Judging or concluding that something is true

• Analyzing facts and coming to a logical outcome based on the evidence

• Drawing conclusions (reading between the lines)

• Realizing “Oh, now I get it!”

Inferring can be trickier than a game of charades!

Example: At the beach Taylor saw a sign that read…..

Sharks

No swimming

Taylor inferred that this meant that sharks were not allowed to swim in this area.

What did the sign really mean?

Try this one….

Example: Jason came home and didn’t say a word to anyone. Jason’s mom saw him run into his room and heard the door slam behind him. She got angry because she inferred that Jason was being disrespectful to her by slamming his door. She raced into Jason’s room and was about to ground him when she realized his window was open and a strong breeze was blowing.

What could Jason’s actions have meant?

Create an example of a situation where a person might make an incorrect inference

Homework…

• Complete the “Inferential Reflection Sheet”

• Be sure your answers are written in sentences!

• Remember to “CAPSS”

• Capitalize and Punctuate, Sentences structure, Spelling

Lesson 2: The KIS Strategy

Today I am going to read the book Thank You Mr. Falker” by Patricia Polacco

As I read this book what can you infer about reading?

How do you feel…

• How do you feel about the main character?

• How do you feel about the other children in the story?

• What problem does the main character face in the story?

• Why does the character hide her problem?

• What can we learn from this book?

We all infer differently!

We all come from various backgrounds and experiences that make us infer in different ways. Even though we come up with different answers we all use the same strategy. This strategy has three parts:

Remembering Key Words or Facts

Make an Inference by using the Key Words or Facts

Be able to Support those Inferences with facts and our personal experiences.

This strategy is called KIS strategy

KIS Strategy for Inference

• Key Words are underlined

• Infer: Predict what information is missing by thinking about the key words

• Support the inference by explaining why it is correct. Base your explanation on your own past experience and knowledge.

Example: Paragraph 1

• Joshua went into the backyard to play on the swing set. His new puppy, Rascal, ran beside him. As Joshua was running toward the play area, he twisted his ankle. The accident caused him a lot of pain. Joshua’s dad was always doing yard work and making sure that the grass was perfectly cut and the ground was even. Certainly, he would have noticed that hole and filled it up. Neither Joshua nor his father could figure out how that hole appeared. Who or what do you think caused the hole?

Step One: Underline Key Words

• Joshua went into the backyard to play on the swing set. His new puppy, Rascal, ran beside him. As Joshua was running toward the play area, he twisted his ankle. The accidentcaused him a lot of pain. Joshua’s dad was always doing yard work and making sure that the grass was perfectly cut and the ground was even. Certainly, he would have noticed that hole and filled it up. Neither Joshua nor his father could figure out how that hole appeared. Who or what do you think caused the hole?

Infer: Predict what information is missing by thinking about the key words

• New puppy, deep hole, accident, dad, yard work, would have noticed the hole, and filled it up, might be important words

• I’ve raised several dogs and realize that puppies love to dig holes in the ground. I also know that Joshua and his Dad did not dig the hole because the text uses the word accident, Dad would have noticed the hole.

Using the KIS strategy

• I can infer that…

• Inference: Joshua’s new puppy dug a hole in the yard.

• Support: Many puppies love to dig; Joshua’s dad keeps the law neat and even; neither Joshua and his dad knew who had dug the hole.

Example Paragraph 2

Mary has been a receptionist at Hair Clips for seven years. She rarely makes mistakes in scheduling customers. Last week, two hairdressers complained that three of there regular customers missed their appointments because of scheduling errors. What could have happened?

Step One: Underline Key Words

Mary has been a receptionist at Hair Clips for seven years. She rarely makes mistakes in scheduling customers. Last week, two hairdressers complained that three of there regular customers missed their appointments because of scheduling errors. What could have happened?

Infer: Predict what information is missing by thinking about the key words

• Mary, receptionist, seven years, rarely makes mistakes, missed appointments, complaints

• I’ve been to the hair salon many times and I know that they make money from having customers receive a hair cut. Customers leaving means no money. I also know that the hair stylists are complaining about the missed appointments. Mary has been there for 7 years which means she most likely knows what she is doing and that she does a good job.

Using the KIS strategy

• I can infer that…

• Inference: Someone else may have been scheduling appointments while Mary was out of the salon.

• Support: Mary rarely makes scheduling mistakes and there were three mistakes made in one week.

Example: Paragraph 3

Emma is a very cautious shopper. She rarely takes risks, and she has a hard time buying new items unless she knows she won’t waste her money. Emma sticks to her shopping list unless there’s a sale, and she’s been wanting to buy the item. You won’t ever see Emma wasting her money. In fact, her family calls her the Tightwad Money Manager. Which of these items would Emma most likely not buy: toothpaste, Super Duper Water Spray, beans, bubble gum?

Step One: Underline Key Words

Emma is a very cautious shopper. She rarely takes risks, and she has a hard time buying new items unless she knows she won’t waste her money. Emma sticks to her shopping list unless there’s a sale, and she’s been wanting to buy the item. You won’t ever see Emma wasting her money. In fact, her family calls her the Tightwad Money Manager. Which of these items would Emma most likely not buy: toothpaste, Super Duper Water Spray, beans, bubble gum?

Infer: Predict what information is missing by thinking about the key words

• Emma, cautious shopper, hard time buying new items, she won’t waste her money, sticks to her shopping list, Tightwad Money Manager

• I know that when I am shopping that most of the items listed are common items that people use and need to have on hand in their homes. I know that if a person is being careful with their money they would not buy an item that they don’t need.

Using the KIS strategy

• I can infer that…

• Inference: Emma would not buy the Super Duper Water Spray.

• Support: She is a person who does not like to waste money on new items. Water Spray is something you don’t have to buy.

Create a paragraph (s)

Use clues to state information without telling the reader

Example: Select a location or emotion that readers will recognize, provide a clues but do not state the actual location

Identifying this place should be easy if you pay attention to the clues I am giving you. This location is found outside of our school. Students spend a lot of their time here. This is a place where they might eat, sleep, watch TV., and spend time with their families. This place is where they are the most comfortable and relaxed. This location is inside of their home. Do you know what this location is?

Will sat quietly on the bench staring at the red dirt on the floor of the dugout. His face was smeared with dirt and he appeared tired to his mother. As he sat there, he would not look out as his team mates continued to play. The playoff game that was going on continued without him. One tear slowly slid down his cheek leaving a trail as he thought about the mistakes he had made on the field during the first inning. He had let his team mates down and the coach had benched him. He wished he had listened to his mother and that he had gone to bed on time. Staying up late had made him tired and sluggish on the field.

• Complete the worksheet: Practicing the KIS strategy

• Be sure you….

• Underline key words

• Make inferences about the situations

• Support your inferences

Lesson 3: Make a Good Inference

• Locate facts in the text that will help you make an inference.

• Find an opinion statement in the text.

• Figure out what you know and believe about your topic (your background knowledge, opinions, and experience)

A donkey and a dog were traveling together when they saw a letter on the ground. The donkey began to read the letter to the dog. It concerned hay, barley, and bran, which the dog was not interested in.

He interrupted the donkey. “Who cares about hay, barley, and bran? Skip a few paragraphs , Donkey. You might find something interesting about meat and bones.”

The donkey, who did love hay, barley, and bran, skimmed the letter. “You’re right! Here’s something about free bones.”

The dog whirled in excitement. “Where? Where?”

“Be still, and let me finish reading the letter,” the donkey answered. “It says that free bones will be given out at Shipley’s Farm on—”

“I know where that is!” the dog said, and he ran down the road.

“Wait!” the donkey cried. “There’s more!”

When the panting dog reaches the farm, he found out that the bones were to be given out two days later.

• Be sure your answers are written in sentences

• Be sure you use your opinion and personal experiences to develop your inferences.