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第三章 水环境化学 (Water Environmental Chemistry ) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第三章 水环境化学 (Water Environmental Chemistry ). 本章重点. 1 、无机污染物在水体中进行沉淀 - 溶解、氧化 - 还原、 配合作用、吸附 - 解吸、絮凝 - 沉淀的基本原理 ;. 2 、计算水体中金属存在形态 ;. 3 、 pE 计算 ;. 4 、有机污染物在水体中的迁移转化过程和分配系数、挥发速率、水解速率、光解速率和生物降解速率的计算方法。. 第一节 天然水的基本特征及污染物的存在形态. 一、天然水体的基本特征 (Basic Character of Natural Waters).

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第三章 水环境化学 (Water Environmental Chemistry )

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(Water Environmental Chemistry)


1--

--;

2;

3pE;

4


(Basic Character of Natural Waters)

1(Constitution of Natural Waters)

K+Na+Ca2+Mg2+HCO3-NO3-Cl-SO42-

(TDS)

TDS=[K++Na++Ca2++Mg2+]+[HCO3-+NO3-+Cl-+SO42-


2(Characteristic of Natural Waters)

1(Balance of H2CO3)

CO2CO32-HCO3-H2CO3

CO2H2CO3H2CO3*


H2CO3* HCO3-CO32-

CO2 + H2O = H2CO3* pK0 = 1.46

H2CO3* = H+ + HCO3- pK1 = 6.35

HCO3- = H+ + CO32- pK2 = 10.33


0 =[H2CO3* ]/{[H2CO3* ]+[HCO3- ]+[CO32-]}

1= [HCO3- ] /{[H2CO3* ]+[HCO3- ]+[CO32-]}

2 = [CO32-] /{[H2CO3* ]+[HCO3- ]+[CO32-]}


2(Acidity and Alkalinity in Natural Waters)

Alkalinity


H+ + OH- = H2O

H+ + CO32- = HCO3- ()

H+ + HCO3- = H2CO3 ()


= [ HCO3-] + 2[CO32-] + [ OH-] [H+]

=[OH-]+[CO32-]-[H2CO3*] [H+]

= [OH-]- [ HCO3-] - 2[CO32-] [H+]


Acidity

H+H+


=[H+]+ [ HCO3-] +2[H2CO3*] - [ OH-]

CO2= [H+]+ [H2CO3*] - [CO32-] - [ OH-]

=[H+]- [ HCO3-]-2 [CO32-] - [ OH-]


1 (Organic Pollutant)

(PCBS)


PAH)


2 (Metal Pollutant)

Cd Hg Pb As Cr Cu Zn Tl Ni Be


(Transport and Transformation of inorganic Pollutants)

(Transport Between Particles and Water)

1


(Humic Substances)

COOHOHpH


2

(Adsorption of Particals in Water Environmen)


1

(Adsorption Isotherms and Isothermal Equation)


G (C)

H Henry

K

FFreundlich


LLangmuir

G0

A


3

(Release of Heavy Metals in Sediment)


1

2

3pH

4


(Aggregation of Particals in Water)


(Flocculation Way of Colloid Particulate)

1

2

3

4.


(Aggregation Way of Colloid Particulate)

5

6

7

8

9

10


(Precipitation and Dissolution)

1


pH


2 (Sulfide)

[Me2+]=Ksp/[S2-]=Ksp[H+]2/(0.1K1K2)


3 (Carbonates)CaCO3

1(Closed System for the Atmosphere)

CT

CaCO3

CaCO3 = Ca2+ + CO32-

KSP = [Ca2+] [CO32-] = 10-8.23


(Open System for the Atmosphere)

CaCO3CO2pCO2CO2


- (Oxidation and Reduction)

1

1

pE = -lg(e)

e


:

H2 2H+(aq)+ 2e = H21GH+(aq)1H21.0130105 Pa (1)1

pE = 0.0


EpE

Ox + n e = Red

Nernst


2pE-pH (pE in Natrual Water)

1.0130105Pa

pE = 20.75-pH


1.0130105Pa


3pE

(pE in Natrual Water )

Fe(III)Mn(IV)S(VI)

H2OFe(II)Mn(II)S(-II)


pE


4

NH4+NO2-NO3-


5

Fe(OH)3(S)Fe2+

1.0010-3 mol/L

Fe3+ + e = Fe2+ pEo = 13.05


6(Oxidation of Organic in Water)

{CH2O} + O2 CO2 + H2O


NH4+H2SCH4


(Complexation)

1

OH-Cl-CO32-HCO3-F-S2-CN-NH3


NTAEDTA


2(Character ofComplexation in Natrual Water Bodies)

1

2

3


Humic acid

Fulvic acid

Humin

(Complexation of Humic Substances)



(Transport and Transformation of organic Pollutants)


partition

adsorption)

(Partition)

1 (Partition Theory)

sorption()


2(Koc)

()Kp

CsCw


3 (BCF)

-

KB:

BCFKB


(Volatilization)


(Hydrolysis)

X-OH-


(Photolysis)


(Biodegradation)

1 (Growth metabolism)


pH


Monod



2 (Cometabolism)


Paris


(Water Quality Model)


(Prediction Model of Eutrophic Water Body)



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