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University of Messina. A Naming System Applied To a RESERVOIR Cloud. A.Celesti M. Villari A. Puliafito. {acelesti, mvillari, [email protected] University of Messina , Faculty of Engineering, Dept. of Mathematics , Contrada di Dio, S. Agata, 98166 Messina, Italy.

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University of messina

University of Messina

A Naming System Applied To

a

RESERVOIR Cloud

A.Celesti M. Villari A. Puliafito

{acelesti, mvillari, [email protected]

University of Messina, Faculty of Engineering,

Dept. of Mathematics, Contrada di Dio, S. Agata, 98166 Messina, Italy

  • The 6th IEEE International Conference on Information Assurance and Security (IAS 2010), August 2010

  • Ph.D Student

  • Francesco Longo


Outline

University of Messina

Outline

  • Introduction

  • PreliminaryConcepts on CloudComputing and CooperatingClouds

  • Details on RESERVOIR, the EuropeanCloudInitiative, a 7FP Project

  • Descriptionof RESERVOIR Use Cases

  • Analysisof the CloudNameSpaces

  • The CloudNaming System Framework

  • RESERVOIR UseCases In FederatedCloudScenarios and theirCNSFsasSupportfor the CloudFederation

  • Conclusionand Future Works

  • Acknoledgments

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


What s cloud computing

Definition of Ian Foster,

the father of Grid Computing

Reported on: Cloud computing and grid computing 360-degree

A large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale, in which a pool of

abstracted, virtualized, dynamically-scalable, managedcomputing power, storage, platforms, and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet.

University of Messina

What’s Cloud Computing

  • A large-scale distributed computing paradigm, in which a pool of virtualized resources are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet.

  • Virtualization allows servers, storage devices, and other hardware to be treated as a pool of resources rather than discrete systems.

  • It’s a highly dynamic environment, where virtual resources can be migrated and composed in order to provide IaaS, PaaS, SaaS.

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Cloud challenges

University of Messina

Cloud Challenges

  • Security

  • QoS

  • Virtualization

  • Monitoring

  • Green Computing

  • Resource Management

  • Resource Optimization

  • Naming and Resource Location

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Different subsequent stages for cloud computing market

Different subsequent stages for Cloud Computing market

T. Bittman, The evolution of the cloud computing market, Gartner Blog Network,

http://blogs.gartner.com/thomas bittman/2008/11/03/the- evolution-of-the-cloud-computing-market/, November 2008.

  • 1)Monolithic: (now !!!!), cloud services are based on proprietary architectures - islands of cloud services delivered by megaproviders (this is what Amazon, Google, Salesforce and Microsoft look like today).

  • 2) Vertical Supply Chain: some cloud providers will leverage cloud services from other providers. The clouds will be proprietary islands yet, but the ecosystem building will start.

  • 3) Horizontal Federation: smaller, medium, and large providers will federate horizontally themselves to gain: economies of scale, an efficient use of their assets, and an enlargement of their capabilities.

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


European commission initiatives

European Commission Initiatives:

The first phase of the 7FP:

Call 1.2 Service and Software Architectures, Infrastructures and Engineering. The software and services sector plays a key role in the information society. They are critical to product innovation and economic growth.

Major Contributors: IBM, SAP, SunMicrosystems, Telefonica, Universityof Messina, University College of London, UmeaUniversity, UniversidadComplutense de Madrid, Universityof Lugano, Thales Group, ElsagDatamat, CETIC

RESERVOIR: An EU-funded project thatpromotesresearchintocreating a service-based online economy based on distributedcomputing in an “open cloud”.

Resources and Services Virtualization

without Barriers

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Reservoir

Cloud Computing:

A style of computing where massively scalable IT-enabled capabilities are delivered as a service to external customers using Internet technologies.

Premise:

No single cloud can create a seemingly infinite infrastructure capable of serving massive amounts of users at all times, from all locations

RESERVOIR:

Investigate technologies for advanced Cloud ComputingFocus on technologies that enable to build afederation of cooperating computing clouds

RESERVOIR

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Reservoir motivations

RESERVOIR Motivations

  • Service-Oriented economy is at our door

  • Services over the Internet are winning in the market

    • Consumers use Facebook, YouTube, eBay, Amazon, Second Life…

    • SMEs use hosted Microsoft Exchange, Salesforce.com

    • Enterprises routinely rely on remote IT outsourcing

  • Services reduce complexity and cost

  • Service-Oriented Economy requires:

    • Service-Oriented Infrastructure

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Reservoir vision

RESERVOIR Vision

  • The Next Generation Infrastructure for Service Delivery

    • Provide revolutionary foundation for a new European infrastructure where resources and services can be transparently and dynamically managed, provisioned and relocated like utilities – virtually “without borders”

    • No single facility/provider can create a seemingly infinite infrastructure capable of serving massive amounts of users at all times, from all locations

      • Federation of clouds

      • Leverage the diversity factor to achieve economies of scale

      • Leverage locality

    • Analogies exists in areas outside IT services

      • Electrical power delivery: capacity can be shifted to guarantee supply and lower costs

      • Roaming cellular communications: talk wherever you are

    • Enable utility-like deployment of services, relieving the service consumer from awareness of the IT attributes while assuring QoS and security

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Reservoir challenges

RESERVOIR Challenges

  • The RESERVOIR envisioned highly dynamic and cooperative infrastructure relies on:

    • A service definition language that captures in a high level language the functional and infrastructure requirements of the service (including servers, images, network, storage, inter-tier relations and QoS requirements)

    • An abstraction layer that separates implementation details from the high level automation systemthat is responsible for the provisioning, monitoring and reallocation of resources

    • Inter-domain protocols that enable multiple management sites to cooperate in providing a single service, where the cooperation is automatically driven from a service definition document (fully automated cross-domains SLA management)

    • The capability of creating fully isolated virtual organizations spread across geographies and management domains

    • The flexibility of placing and relocating service instances on resources anywhere even across geographies and management domains

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


The pillars of cc according to reservoir

The pillars of CC (according to RESERVOIR)

  • Separation

    • Cloud computing providers lease resources on pay-per-use basis but do not expose infrastructure details to customers or partners

    • Cloud computing consumers use leased resources without exposing details of their applications to providers

  • Isolation

    • Given the hosting nature of cloud computing providers, consumers need mechanisms and warranties that their application are isolated from others that are being hosted in the same infrastructure

  • Elasticity

    • Cloud computing providers should automatically adjust the resources allocated to a particular application according to “elasticity rules” provided by cloud computing consumer

  • And…

    Federation

    To overcome the finite amount of resources available locally, cloud computing providers should be able to collaborate among themselves and share their resources

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Federation of cooperating clouds

Federation of cooperating clouds

My Private Cloud

My Partner Cloud

A Public Cloud: i.e Amazon

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Reservoir reference architecture a federation of heterogeneous physical infrastructures

RESERVOIR referencearchitecture: a federationofheterogeneousphysicalinfrastructures.

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Description of the reservoir use cases

Descriptionof the RESERVOIR Use Cases

  • The UTILITY COMPUTING Application

  • The TELCO Application

  • The eBUSINESS Application

  • The eGOVERNMENT Application

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


The utility computing application

The UTILITY COMPUTING Application

  • Based on SunGridEngine (SGE or GE)

  • SGE providesworkload management and dynamicprovisioningofapplicationworkloads.

  • SGE acceptsjobsfrom the outside world, queues and schedulesthemaccordingtopolicies

  • SunGridEngine can be in clusteredconfiguration. The cluster consistsof the followingcorecomponents:

    • hosts,

    • Daemons

    • Queues

  • Todeploysuch a system in a Cloudinfrastructureitisnecessarytoguaranteeintercommunicationamongall the VirtualMachinethathost the GRID environment.

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


The telco application

The TELCO Application

  • Telcooperator: Telefonica Spain

  • Massive access Web Serviceslinkedto a worldwideevent, like the Olympics, or a service likeYoutube

  • “Platformas a Service” (PaaS) business modelwhere the Telcooperatorcouldhostowned or third party servicesover a CloudComputing.

  • Third party service couldbecreatedwithplatformservices (billing, messaging, video streaming, VoIP, etc.).

  • Transparentintercommunicationamong the inter-domain federatednetworks

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


The ebusiness application

The eBUSINESSApplication

  • eBusinessuse case based on a commercial application, the SAP software customers management.

  • A SAP system is a three-tiers system consistingof a presentationlayer, applicationlayer and a database layer.

  • The maincomponents are:•

    • DialogueInstance (DI)hosts the work processesthatexecute the ABAP programsas a responsetouserrequests.

    • Thereisonly a single CentralInstance (CI) per SAP system. The CIcommunicateswith the DIs and performscentralservicessuchaslocking, messaging, registrationofDIs, and sessioninitiation and loadbalancingamongDis.

    • A single Database Management System (DBMS) serves the SAP system. The DBMS accessesitsstorageeitheras a Network-AttachedStorage (NAS) or by a Storage Area Network (SAN).

  • Intercommunicationamongall the physicalhosts and hypervisorswhere the VMsofDIs, CIs and DBMS are confined, even in partner clouds

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Motivations for the cloud name space

University of Messina

Motivations for the Cloud Name Space

  • A cloud environment includes many concrete and abstracted entities which need to be identified, whose states can frequently change

  • e.g. A “virtual machine”

    • It can be allocated, deallocated or migrated from a cloud to another.

    • A migration could trigger an identity alteration: a virtual resoruce being part of a virtual cloud service could later become part of another cloud service.

  • Cloud entities could have one or more names, identifiers, and representations in various cloud contexts

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Cooperating clouds naming issues

University of Messina

Cooperating Clouds: Naming Issues

  • Clouds are heterogeneous: each cloud may have its own naming system (e.g. DNS, URI-based, P2P, …)

    • These naming systems, considered alone, are not enough.

    • The management and integration of Independent Cloud Name Spaces can be difficult.

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Our cloud name space analysis

University of Messina

OurCloudNameSpaceAnalysis

  • Which are the entities involved in cloud computing?

  • CloudNamedEntityClass (CNEC)

  • CloudNamedEntity (CNE).

    • A genericentityindicatedbyone or more names, whichmayreferbothtoreal/abstracted and simple/structuredentities.

Abstracted and Structured

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Our cloud name space analysis1

University of Messina

OurCloudNameSpaceAnalysis

  • Which are the entities involved in cloud computing?

  • CloudNamedEntityClass (CNEC)

  • CloudNamedEntity (CNE).

    • A genericentityindicatedbyone or more names, whichmayreferbothtoreal/abstracted and simple/structuredentities.

Real and Structured

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Our cloud name space analysis2

University of Messina

OurCloudNameSpaceAnalysis

  • Which are the entities involved in cloud computing?

  • CloudNamedEntityClass (CNEC)

  • CloudNamedEntity (CNE).

    • A genericentityindicatedbyone or more names, whichmayreferbothtoreal/abstracted and simple/structuredentities.

Real and Simple

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Our cloud name space analysis3

University of Messina

OurCloudNameSpaceAnalysis

  • Which are the entities involved in cloud computing?

  • CloudNamedEntityClass (CNEC)

  • CloudNamedEntity (CNE).

    • A genericentityindicatedbyone or more names, whichmayreferbothtoreal/abstracted and simple/structuredentities.

Abstracted and Simple

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Cloud context ccntx

University of Messina

CloudContext (CCNTX)

  • An environment where a CNE may be resolved by means one or more Service End-Points (SEPs).

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Our solution

University of Messina

OurSolution

  • Our solution to the problem is Cloud Naming System Framework able to

    • Manage their name spaces

    • Mapping one or more names associated to a CNE, with the corresponding service representing the target CNE in a given CCNTX.

    • Help “Cloud Manager Layer” tasks: each of such tasks requires to name and resolve appropriately the involved CNEs inside CCNTXs.

  • Requirements:

    • Compatibility

    • Scalability

    • Extensibility

    • Entity description

    • Name recycling

    • Non-correlation

    • Name space integration

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Adoped tecnologies in our practice implementation

University of Messina

AdopedTecnologies in OurPractice Implementation

  • XRI Protocol

    • Cloud Name Space Manager

    • Cloud Name Space Mounter

    • Cloud Naming System

  • HTTP Protocol

    • Resolution of XRI Name

  • XRDS

    • Cloud Named Entity Descriptor

  • DNS

    • Public Naming System

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Extensible resource identifier

University of Messina

eXtensibleResourceIdentifier

  • It provides a standard syntax for identifying entities, regardless any particular concrete representation.

  • The protocol is built on URI (Uniform Resource Identifiers) and IRI (Internationalized Resource Identifiers)

  • Since an URL is also an URI, the protocol provides a parsing mechanism from XRI to URL and other compatible URN domain.

  • Global Context Symbols (GCS): [email protected], “=“, “+”

  • Persistent and reassignable identifiers: i-numbers (Canonical ID) and i-names (Local ID).

  • E.g. xri:[email protected]*lab2*host1*VM3

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Extensible resource descriptor document

University of Messina

eXtensible Resource Descriptor Document

The virtual machine

name is mounted on the

parent XRI Authority xri:[email protected]*lab2*host1

with

xri:[email protected]*lab2*host1*VM3

SEP Information

SEP Authentication

SEP Performance

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Xri and the telco use case

XRI and the TELCO Use Case

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Xri and the ebusiness use case

XRI and the eBUSINESSUse Case

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Xri and the utility computing use case

XRI and the UTILITY COMPUTING Use Case

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Conclusion

University of Messina

Conclusion

  • The Frameworkprovides a flexiblemechanismfor the integrationofindependentcloudnamespaces.

  • It can addressanykindofcloud scenario

  • It can supportanyURI-basednaming system

  • It can help the resource management in federatedcloudenvironments.

  • It can beeasilyapplicabile on severalReservoirUse Cases:

    • RESERVOIR 7FP European Project.

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Future works

University of Messina

Future Works

  • Implementing the modulesbeingintegrated in the RESERVOIR architectureableto deal with RESERVOIR’sUse Cases

  • Testingthe performance of the nameresolution and information retrieval

  • Planning othernamespaceintegrationschemas.

  • Makingsecure the nameresoulutionconsideringalso security policies.

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Acknoledgments

University of Messina

Acknoledgments

The researchleadingto the resultspresented in

thispaperhasreceivedfundingfrom the

EuropeanUnion’sseventhframework

programme (FP7 2007-2013) Project

RESERVOIR under grantagreeementnumber

215605.

SPEDA 2010 - Atlanta, August 24 2010


Thank you

THANK YOU?

Francesco Longo ([email protected])

University of Messina, Italy


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