The “Drivers” of Crime
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The “Drivers” of Crime. Steven Deller Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics University of Wisconsin – Madison/Extension. The “Drivers” of Crime. The “Drivers” of Crime. Top Ten State Expenditures. The “Drivers” of Crime. The “Drivers” of Crime. The “Drivers” of Crime.

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Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

Steven Deller

Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics

University of Wisconsin – Madison/Extension


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

Top Ten State Expenditures


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

Violent Crime Rate:

Average 2005-2007


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

Property Crime Rate:

Average 2005-2007


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

The study of crime is composed of two parts:

The first is criminology which seeks to address the question what influence society has on crime. This can be social/cultural and economic.

The second is criminal justicewhich focuses on public institutions and political elements.

Criminology focuses on how to prevent crime, criminal justice focuses on how society responses to crime.


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

Figure 2. Triangulation of the Core Theories of Criminology

Anomie/Strain Theory

Rational Economic Theory

  • Emphasizes individuals and conflicts between goals and means to achieve those goals.

  • Envy effects between rich and poor.

  • Frustration with personal economic/social position.

  • Emphasizes individual choices and maintains crime can be rational.

  • Compares benefits of the crime vs costs.

  • High benefits to the crime vs low risks of capture and incarceration.

  • Poverty

  • Inequality

  • Social Capital

  • Social Norms

  • Emphasizes social, economic and political forces at the macro or community level.

  • Social norms weak or breakdown.

  • Conflict/tension within the community.

Social Disorganization Theory


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

-541.5759 - .0021X R2 = .1410 F=11.33

(3.37)

Figure 3b: Population on Change in Wisconsin County Property Crime Rates


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

-5.5818 - .0261X R2 = .0421 F=3.03

(1.74)

Figure 4b: Median Household Income on Change in Wisconsin County

Property Crime Rates


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

-792.7073 + 9.3672X R2 = .0026 F=.18

(0.42)

Figure 5b: Poverty Rate on Change in Wisconsin County Property Crime Rates


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

-668.3695 – 1.1992X R2 = .0001 F=.01

(0.08)

Figure 6b: Youth Poverty Rate on Change in Wisconsin County Property Crime Rates


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

234.3506 – 3157.6599X R2 = .0464 F=3.36

(1.83)

Figure 7b: Gini Coefficient on Change in Wisconsin County Property Crime Rates


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

70.7115 – .0145X R2 = .0756 F=5.64

(2.38)

Figure 10b: Median House Value on Change in Wisconsin County Property Crime Rates


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

-1541.1034 + 165.9381X R2 = .1040 F=8.01

(2.83)

Figure 11b: Unemployment Rate on Change in Wisconsin County Property Crime Rates


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

-86.6283 – 44.3736X R2 = .1016 F=7.80

(2.79)

Figure 13b: Percent of the Population Age 25+ with at Least a Bachelor's Degree on Change in Wisconsin County Property Crime Rates


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

One area of work that is gaining more attention is the role of social capital

One can argue that higher levels of social capital can increase the moral threshold of the potential criminal which in turn reduces the likelihood of committing crime.

1: Risk of capture

2: Pressure to not commit crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

Following the work of Coleman (1988), Flora and Flora (1993) Putnam (1993 1995), and Turner (1999), Shaffer, Deller and Marcouiller (2004) offer the following definition of social capital:

Social capital refers to features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit. Networks of civic engagement foster norms of general reciprocity and encourage the emergence of social trust. Social capital consists of the social networks in a community, the level of trust between community members, and local norms. These networks, norms and trusts help local people work together for their mutual benefit. (p203-204).


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

How does one measure social capital?

Many empirical studies that have specifically modeled the relationship between crime and social capital have tended to rely on survey data of individuals where questions aimed at measuring social capital can be more easily crafted (e.g., Kennedy et al. 1998; Rosenfeld, Messner and Baumer 2001; Messner, Baumer and Rosenfeld 2004)


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

How does one measure social capital?

For this study we follow an approach outlined in Rupasingha, Goetz and Freshwater (2006), Rupasingha and Goetz (2007) and Goetz and Rupasingha (2006) and use a range of secondary data sources to build a set of proxy measures of social capital.

In his 2006 Johan Skytte Prize Lecture Putnam (2007) commends the work of Rupasingha and his colleagues in their approach and resulting measures.


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

How does one measure social capital?

We offer up four blocks of variables designed to capture social capital:

Businesses

Cooperatives

Religious Congregations

Non-profits


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

How does one measure social capital?

Businesses (CBP)


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

How does one measure social capital?

Cooperatives (UWCC)


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

How does one measure social capital?

Church Congregations


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

How does one measure social capital?

Non-profits (IRS 990)


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

  • Control Variables

  • Three blocks:

  • Social-demographic

  • Economic (wealth-poverty)

  • Change


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

So, what are the overall conclusions……

Well….It Depends…..

There is a lot of contradictory evidence….

It depends on the type of crime that one is talking about…..

It is much more than simply poverty….

For rural there is evidence that as a county grows there will be upward pressure placed on crime rates….

There is evidence that certain types of social capital matter, but not always in the way predicted by theory…..


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

So, what are the overall conclusions……

“While the research finds that social capital matters both theoretically and empirically, policy options are much more subtle. There is strong evidence that a higher concentration of organizations that allow for networking, such as professional, business, and labor organizations (e.g., chambers of commerce and labor unions), as well as civic, social, and community benefit-focused organizations (e.g., community foundations, fraternal organizations, and alumni associations), is associated with lower rural crime rates.”


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

So, what are the overall conclusions……

The results presented here support Reisig and Cancino (2004), who argue that social capital is too broad of a concept with respect to crime and should be more focused on notions of collective value or social norms. Highly organized and effective criminal enterprises could be described as having high levels of social capital.

Wojan, McGranajan, and Lambert (2009) make a distinction between civic capacity and social capital.


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

So, what are the overall conclusions……

What does social capital mean as a deterrent to crime? Does it mean networking opportunities and density of acquaintance, or does it involve notions of civic capacity and civic engagement? Simply having a chamber of commerce or fraternal organizations or religious based social organizations is not sufficient to deter rural crime. In essence, social capital is necessary but not sufficient to deter crime. By examining why social capital is not sufficient we are beginning to remove the layers of a very complex problem.


Steven deller department of agricultural and applied economics

The “Drivers” of Crime

Thanks!


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