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大学计算机基础 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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大学计算机基础. 西北工业大学出版社 www.nwpup.com. 第 1 章 计算机基础知识. 本章内容. 1.1 计算机概述 1.2 认识微型计算机 1.3 微型计算机的硬件系统 1.4 计 算机中信息的表示. 教学目标 :. 了解计算机的发展史、计算机的分类、计算机的应用 熟悉计算机中的信息表示方法 掌握及认识微型计算机的组成、微型计算机基本性指标. 重点与难点 :. 计算机中的信息表示方法;微型计算机的组成结构、硬件 系统、软件系统、计算机基本性能指标. 1.1 计算机概述. 计算机发展 计算机的分类 计算机的应用.

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大学计算机基础

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www.nwpup.com


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  • 1.1

  • 1.2

  • 1.3

  • 1.4


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:

:


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1.1


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19462ENIAC

  • 30

  • 170m2

  • 18000

  • 80

Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator


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1

2

3


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  • 1.

  • 2.


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  • CADCAM CAI

  • Artificial IntelligenceAI

  • Multimedia


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+

1.2


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CPU

(RAM)

(ROM)

WindowsUnixLinux

CPascalVB


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CPU


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CPU

CPU(Central Processing Unit)CPU

1.ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)

(ALU)

CPU


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2.

CPU(Central Processing Unit)

CPU

CPU(Central Processing Unit)CPU

CPU


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CPU

  • CPU (Central Processing Unit)


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RAMROM

RAMRandom Access Memory

RAM

ROMRead Only Memory


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  • RAM

  • RAMDynamic RAMStatic RAM

  • DRAMMOS

  • SRAMMOS

  • DRAMSRAM


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  • ROM

  • PROM EPROME2PROM

  • PROMProgrammable Read Only MemoryROMPROM

  • E2PROMElectrically Erasable Programmable ROM EPROME2PROMEPROM


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()


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ROM

RAM


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/(MB) (GB)


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1(CD-ROM)

2(WORM)

3/


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U

USBRAMROM

USB


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  • input

  • 1key-driven devices

  • 2pointing devices

  • 3. scanner devices

  • 4sensor devices

  • 5voice input devices


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1042.9


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  • PS/2USB


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  • :

  • 1

  • 2

  • 3

  • 4

  • 5


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  • CRTLED


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CPUCMOSBIOS


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DOS


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  • CPU


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1.4


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  • R


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12

R:R

() RiRi

R

rN:

(ana1a0.a-1a-m)r =anrn++ a0r0+a-1r-1 ++a-mr-m

airir


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( )

  • [1]3058.72 3058.72==3103+0102+5101+8100+

  • 710-1+210-2

  • [2]10111.01 10111.01==124+023+122+121+120+

  • 02-1+12-2


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i


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0

0000

0

0

10

1010

12

A

1

0001

1

1

11

1011

13

B

2

0010

2

2

12

1100

14

C

3

0011

3

3

13

1101

15

D

4

0100

4

4

14

1110

16

E

5

0101

5

5

15

1111

17

F

6

0110

6

6

16

10000

20

10

7

0111

7

7

8

1000

10

8

9

1001

11

9


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R

  • R

  • 1)

    2)

    3)


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(10101)2=24+22+1=21

1r ()

(101.11)2=22+1+2-1+2-2=5.75

(101)8=82+1=65

(71)8=7 8+1=57

(101A)16=163+16+10=4122


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2 100

2 500

2 250

2 121

2 60

2 30

2 11

01

0.345

2

0.690

2

1.380

2

0.760

2

1.520

2

1.040

2r

r0

r

1r ()

2r

(100.345)10( )2

(1100100.01011)2

**

**


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3

31

41

00

1r ()

2r

3

(1 101 101 110. 110 101)2=(1556.65)8

1 5 5 6 6 5

(11 0110 1110. 1101 01)2=(36E.D4)16

3 6 E D 4


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4

1r ()

2r

3

4


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110010= 2= 8= 16

20.34510=2= 8= 16

1=1448=6416

2=0.268=0.5816


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1110101012=8

1156.3648= 2

2 725.3648= 2

363248= 2

432565218= 2


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  • 1110101012=16

  • 156D.36416= 2

  • 2 E25.A6416= 2

  • 3AB316= 2

  • 4E5C52116= 2


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[1] 101101B= D

=1*2 6-1 +1*2 4-1 +1*2 3-1 +1*2 1-1

=32+8+4+1 =45D

[2] 267O= D

=2*8 3-1 +6*8 2-1 +7*8 1-1

= 2*64+6*8+7*1=128+48+7 =183D

[3] 1CAH= D

=1*16 3-1 +12*16 2-1 +10*16 1-1

=1*256+12*16+10*1 =458D


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:


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Bit

Byte

b7 b6 b5 b4 b3 b2 b1 b0

=149

=27+ 24+ 22+ 20

1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1

K 1KB = 1024 byte

M1M = 1024 K

G 1G = 1024 M

T1T = 1024 G

(Word):


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lBCD BCD Binary Coded Decimal

842lBCD


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03212734

3312694

2ASCII

7128


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d6d5d4 d3d2d1d0

d6d5d4d3d2d1d0

ASCII


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GB2312-80

6763

3755

3008

94

+=;32

544854488680

32


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01

128ASCII

128

868001010110 01010000

11010110 11010000

01


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1616 > 3218

2424 > 72

3232 > 128

nn

nn/8


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KV3000


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1

2

3

4

5


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1

2

3

4

5CPU

6

7

8


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1

2

3


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