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Enhancing Success for all Students. 23 rd June 2009 Sandra Griffiths. Purpose of the Session. To investigate findings of research into student and staff views on inclusion, diversity, engagement and student success To consider the implications of findings To undertake a case study activity.

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Enhancing Success for all Students

23rd June 2009

Sandra Griffiths


Purpose of the session
Purpose of the Session

  • To investigate findings of research into student and staff views on inclusion, diversity, engagement and student success

  • To consider the implications of findings

  • To undertake a case study activity


Definitions for research my choice
Definitions for Research: My Choice

“ Inclusion extends beyond equity and its associated legislative frameworks to encompass approaches in which each individual is valued and respected, differences between individuals are seen positively and the diversity of an institution’s social capital is seen as a quality outcome.” Cones et al (1983)


Why do i favour this definition
Why do I favour this definition?

Accommodating and responding to the diversity of the student population

Making students part of a community of learners

Learning from practice and taking risks

Being honest about similarities and differences

Confronting the challenge of inclusive learning as a benchmark of excellence, more likely to result in learner success


How does inclusion differ from related terms
How does inclusion differ from related terms?

Teaching for Inclusion can be distinguished from other related terms, -participation, diversity, engagement, because it depicts a higher level of purposeful political will & the two way responsibility.


Why necessary now educational context
Why necessary now? Educational Context

  • Widening Participation, Diversity, Inclusion are complementary agendas in higher education

  • Retention, now focus on student success

  • Legislation Disability Discrimination Act Part 4, Code of Practice 2005

  • Successive Reports -Tomlinson Report, Inclusive Learning 1996

  • Diverse student body or is it?

  • More international staff & students

  • Need to prepare students to live and work in global society

  • Focus on learner-centred environments

  • What we know about how people learn


Research findings
Research Findings

  • Student interviews, Staff Interviews 2005-2008

  • Staff Focus Groups 2005-2008

  • Educational Developers, Interviews and Questionnaire 2008

  • Questionnaire to Students, 2009 ongoing


What students say about inclusion
What students say about inclusion

  • Interviewed 32 students across 6 universities ,semi-structured interview. Sample from range of backgrounds.

  • 18 said they were broadly satisfied that teaching was inclusive and considered they belonged to the university

  • 14 were not so satisfied and cited wide variety of reasons, not all of which were within the control of HE

  • Most suggested improvements for enhancing inclusion whether they considered practice effective or ineffective


Promoted by
Promoted by

  • Interested in us as people (know our names, educational backgrounds, about our money problems, not off doing research somewhere else)

  • Know our identity, faith backgrounds, community, local, “Have some info about where we’re from”

  • Can handle conflict and uncomfortable situations, training for lecturers needed in teaching controversial subjects

  • Respect all individuals and groups equally and give equal time after class and during it.

  • Make effort to engage us in class, with content, assessment

  • Use different ways of teaching, not just lectures- “Often waste of time”


Inhibited by
Inhibited by

  • Lecturers who are not interested ( ‘don’t even know our names, don’t realise we have other demands in our life.’)

  • Invisibility ,No sense of belonging ( ‘don’t know other students, hidden in crowd, working to survive so don’t socialise in college’).

  • Busy (‘Arrive in a breeze ,leave in a breeze, seem to have problems of their own’)

  • Lecturers who are elitist , maintain the divide, aggressive if questioned about feedback, stay at podium, keep up mystique of subject, talk using jargon)

  • Shame and blame culture, ‘show me up- even if not meant that is way it feels it’

  • Pounce/single out in discussion


Recent findings 2009
Recent findings 2009

  • Broad satisfaction, 4 students

  • 4 students, some dissatisfaction

  • 2 students dissatisfied

    Areas of concern: elearning, time tutors give to teaching, time between assignment given and result, no feedback, poor technology & resources, lack of eye contact, could not understand lecturer


What staff say about inclusion
What staff say about inclusion

  • Complex, hardest part of role

  • Large student numbers working against it

  • International students rich resource, not always integrated for complex reasons, requirement for English needs rethought

  • Can be enhanced by thoughtful teaching

  • Inclusive assessment a real challenge

  • Interventions at “course materials level but issues relating to culture, belief and attitudes are much more challenging to address”.


Staff continued
Staff continued

  • Isn’t that difficult if working in an environment that is committed to diversity

  • Some cultural/racial stereotypes persist which are sometimes confirmed or confounded by experience

  • Curricula remains last bastion of reflecting the diverse society in which we live.

  • Ethical issues surrounding teaching for success need more airing among staff


Case study
Case Study

What are the implications for teachers higher education?


How do we teach for student success
How do we teach for Student Success?

  • Curricula

  • Teaching

  • Learning

  • Assessment

  • Learning environment

  • Controversial Moments


Common approaches
Common Approaches

Teaching to a common denominator because “ too busy”

Denial - diversity blindness or ignoring difference

Repair -deficits noted and remedied , may be bolt-on

Adaptation-student changes to meet new demands

Adjustment-each side changing to accommodate difference

Taking the fear out of difference

Full interrogation of complexity of issue resulting in whole society, sector, university policy


References
References

  • Cones,Jahna,Noonan Exploring RacialAssumptions with Faculty in New Directions for teaching and Learning, no.16 San Francicso:Jossey-Bass, 1983

  • Tomlinson Report, Inclusive Learning FEFC 1996

  • Zimiitat,C. First Year students perceptions of inclusion: links with teaching and retention Griffith University, Brisbane 2003


Further resources
Further Resources

  • Access to Art Alice Fox University of Brighton

  • www.coventry.ac.uk/samebutdifferent

  • www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/learningconnection/staff/practice/inclusivity

  • Faith Guides for Higher Education http://prs.heacademy.ac.uk

  • http://inclusion.uwe.ac.uk/csie


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