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Egyptian Creation Myths. Isis and Osiris. World of Ancient Egypt. Religious/Cult Centers of Ancient Egypt. MEMPHIS HELIOPOLIS HERMOPOLIS THEBES. MEMPHIS. Menes (Narmer) unites Upper and Lower Egypt with capital at Memphis. c.3100 B.C. Narmer palette Metropolitan Museum of Art

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Egyptian creation myths

Egyptian CreationMyths

Isis and Osiris



Religious cult centers of ancient egypt
Religious/Cult Centersof Ancient Egypt

MEMPHIS

HELIOPOLIS

HERMOPOLIS

THEBES


Memphis
MEMPHIS

Menes (Narmer)

unites Upper and Lower Egypt

with capital at Memphis. c.3100 B.C.

Narmer palette

Metropolitan Museum of Art

New York


Mythology religion and kingship in egypt
Mythology, Religion and Kingship in Egypt

Official state religion King as priest:

Pharaoh as Horus or son of Re and, after death, Osiris

The pharaoh Chephren with Horus. (The statue originally stood with twenty-two other royal figures as centerpiece of the statue cult in the king's valley temple, Giza. Fourth Dynasty circa 2550 BC. )


Tutankhamun as Osiris ( Dynasty XVIII tomb painting, from the north wall of the tomb of Tutankhamun, Valley of the Kings).


Timeline of ancient egypt
Timeline of Ancient Egypt

c. 4500-3000 Predynastic Period c. 3100-2890 Early Dynastic: Dynasty 1 c. 2890-2686 Early Dynastic: Dynasty 2 c. 2686-2613 Early Dynastic: Dynasty 3 c. 2613-2494 Old Kingdom Dynasty 4 c. 2494-2345 Old Kingdom Dynasty 5 c. 2345-2181 Old Kingdom Dynasty 6 c. 2181-2125 Old Kingdom Dynasties 7 & 8 c. 2125-2025 First Intermediate Period: Dynasties 9-11 c. 2025-1700 Middle Kingdom Dynasties 11-13 c. 1700-1550 Second Intermediate Period Dynasty 13-17 c. 1550-1295 New Kingdom Dynasty 18 c. 1295-1186 New Kingdom Dynasty 19 c. 1186-1069 New Kingdom Dynasty 20 c. 1069-945   Third Intermediate Period Dynasty 21 c. 945-727     Third Intermediate Period Dynasties 22-23 c. 727-332     Late Period Dynasties 24-30 and Persian Occupation     332-30       Ptolemaic Period     30 BC - 330 AD Roman Period     330 AD - 641 Byzantine Period


Egyptian pantheon
Egyptian Pantheon

Anubis

Re

Isis

Hathor

Osiris

Horus

Theriomorphism: Manifestation of some aspect of the god’s power

E.g., Hathor as cow. Cow as symbol of fertility

Atum

Amun

For more information, see http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/index.htmhttp://www.nemo.nu/ibisportal/0egyptintro/1egypt/index.htm


Sources
Sources

Coffin Texts

Middle Kingdom

2025-1700

Pyramid Texts

as early as

2375-2345 B.C.

Old Kingdom


Book of the dead

a collection of formulas, hymns, and prayers for the deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

The Egyptians believed that a Book of the Dead was needed to pass safely through the demons of the Underworld after death.

Book of the Dead

Book of the Dead of Maiherperi1427-1392 BC, 18th DynastyThe Judgment of the Dead


Afterlife
Afterlife deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Illustration from the Book of the Dead (shows deceased being led to judgment by jackal- headed god Anubis, where his heart is weighed against a feather, symbol of truth, in the presence of Thoth, ibis- headed god of wisdom who wears the wide sash of a priest; he notes the results of the weighing. Then, the deceased is led to the supreme judge of the dead and ruler of the underworld, Osiris, who is shown enthroned with attendants. From Thebes. Painted papyrus from the Nineteenth Dynasty ca. 1285 B.C. )


Ptah creator god of memphis
Ptah, Creator god of Memphis deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Temple of Denderah.This engraving represents a pharaoh making offerings to the god Ptah and to the goddess Sekhmet, his wife. Ptah = Primordial Mound

See Bierlein, pp. 51-52


Memphis creation myth c 2900 b c
Memphis Creation Myth deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts. c. 2900 B.C.

political goal:

1.) to celebrate Ptah, the local god of Memphis

2.) unification of Two Egypts

Ptah in primaeval water comes to Heliopolis and calls it Memphis

act of creation = Ptah desires himself eight other gods = Ogdoad


Temple of ptah and sekhmet at memphis
Temple of Ptah and Sekhmet deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts. at Memphis


Shabaka stone
Shabaka Stone deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

He (Ptah) gave birth to the gods,He made the towns,He established the nomes,He placed the gods in their shrines,He settled their offerings,He established their shrines,He made their bodies according to their wishes.Thus the gods entered into their bodies,Of every wood, every stone, every clay,Every thing that grows upon himIn which they came to be.Thus were gathered to him all the gods and their kas,Content, united with the Lord of the Two Lands.

Shabaka (712-698 B.C.), the first Ethiopian born pharaoh

On the Shabaka Stone: http://maat.sophiatopia.org/shabaka.htm

Translation: http://www.touregypt.net/shabakastone.htm


Pyramid text
Pyramid Text deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Hymn to Osiris

Coffin as Geb (Earth)

Lid as Nut (Sky)

Nut on a coffin lid


Creation
Creation deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Painted papyrus depicting Shu, the air god, raising his daughter Nut, the sky goddess, above her brother Geb, the earth god, thus creating the world).


Heliopolis modern cairo
Heliopolis (Modern Cairo) deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Dominant city of the Old Kingdom

Synthesis of

Creation story of Atum

and the story of Osiris

The oldest surviving obelisk in the world, c.2000 B.C.


Coffin text
Coffin Text deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Creation via masturbation

Atum spit me [Shu] out

Compare Bierlein, pg. 51


Heliopolitan ennead
Heliopolitan Ennead deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Seven of nine members of the Heliopolitan Ennead, as represented in the judgment scene on the Papyrus of Ani. From right to left: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut and sitting next to each other, Isis and Nephthys. Other members of the Ennead include Osiris, Seth, Horus and Thot.

From Heliopolis:

Nun (watery chaos)

Atum (sun)

Shu (air) Tefnut (moisture)

Geb (Earth) Nut (sky)

Osiris, Isis, Seth, Nephthys


Creation of the world according to heliopolis
Creation of the World deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts. according to Heliopolis

Development of the Ennead

Birth of Isis and Osiris

Death and Resurrection of Osiris


The ennead
The Ennead deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Cyclical Struggle:

Osiris (Underworld) and Seth (Chaos)

Prominence of Horus (King of Egypt)


Isis and osiris
Isis and Osiris deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

The Birth of Isis and Osiris

The Rivalry of Seth and Horus

Wanderings of isis

Isis Finds the Coffin of Osiris

The Reawakening of Osiris

http://www.philae.nu/philae/IsisOsiris.html

Isis suckling the Horus-Childin the papyrus swamps.


The resurrection of osiris
The Resurrection of Osiris deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Ritual of Osiris

Flooding of the Nile

Rebirth of Egypt

The Osiris Mysteries as portrayed in the Temple of Isis at Philae.(images After H. Rosellini, Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia, Vol. III (Pisa, 1844), Pl. XXIII.)


Isis quest for osiris
Isis’ Quest for Osiris deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.


Greco roman isis
Greco-Roman Isis deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Temple of Isis at Pompeii

Note SYNCRETISM


Ritual of isis
Ritual of Isis deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.

Sistrum (rattle)


Isis vs demeter
Isis vs. Demeter deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.


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