Egyptian Creation Myths. Isis and Osiris. World of Ancient Egypt. Religious/Cult Centers of Ancient Egypt. MEMPHIS HELIOPOLIS HERMOPOLIS THEBES. MEMPHIS. Menes (Narmer) unites Upper and Lower Egypt with capital at Memphis. c.3100 B.C. Narmer palette Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Isis and Osiris
unites Upper and Lower Egypt
with capital at Memphis. c.3100 B.C.
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Official state religion King as priest:
Pharaoh as Horus or son of Re and, after death, Osiris
The pharaoh Chephren with Horus. (The statue originally stood with twenty-two other royal figures as centerpiece of the statue cult in the king's valley temple, Giza. Fourth Dynasty circa 2550 BC. )
Tutankhamun as Osiris ( Dynasty XVIII tomb painting, from the north wall of the tomb of Tutankhamun, Valley of the Kings).
c. 4500-3000 Predynastic Period c. 3100-2890 Early Dynastic: Dynasty 1 c. 2890-2686 Early Dynastic: Dynasty 2 c. 2686-2613 Early Dynastic: Dynasty 3 c. 2613-2494 Old Kingdom Dynasty 4 c. 2494-2345 Old Kingdom Dynasty 5 c. 2345-2181 Old Kingdom Dynasty 6 c. 2181-2125 Old Kingdom Dynasties 7 & 8 c. 2125-2025 First Intermediate Period: Dynasties 9-11 c. 2025-1700 Middle Kingdom Dynasties 11-13 c. 1700-1550 Second Intermediate Period Dynasty 13-17 c. 1550-1295 New Kingdom Dynasty 18 c. 1295-1186 New Kingdom Dynasty 19 c. 1186-1069 New Kingdom Dynasty 20 c. 1069-945 Third Intermediate Period Dynasty 21 c. 945-727 Third Intermediate Period Dynasties 22-23 c. 727-332 Late Period Dynasties 24-30 and Persian Occupation 332-30 Ptolemaic Period 30 BC - 330 AD Roman Period 330 AD - 641 Byzantine Period
Theriomorphism: Manifestation of some aspect of the god’s power
E.g., Hathor as cow. Cow as symbol of fertility
For more information, see http://www.touregypt.net/godsofegypt/index.htmhttp://www.nemo.nu/ibisportal/0egyptintro/1egypt/index.htm
as early as
a collection of formulas, hymns, and prayers for the deceased of ancient Egypt. also known as Pyramid Texts.
The Egyptians believed that a Book of the Dead was needed to pass safely through the demons of the Underworld after death.Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead of Maiherperi1427-1392 BC, 18th DynastyThe Judgment of the Dead
Illustration from the Book of the Dead (shows deceased being led to judgment by jackal- headed god Anubis, where his heart is weighed against a feather, symbol of truth, in the presence of Thoth, ibis- headed god of wisdom who wears the wide sash of a priest; he notes the results of the weighing. Then, the deceased is led to the supreme judge of the dead and ruler of the underworld, Osiris, who is shown enthroned with attendants. From Thebes. Painted papyrus from the Nineteenth Dynasty ca. 1285 B.C. )
Temple of Denderah.This engraving represents a pharaoh making offerings to the god Ptah and to the goddess Sekhmet, his wife. Ptah = Primordial Mound
See Bierlein, pp. 51-52
1.) to celebrate Ptah, the local god of Memphis
2.) unification of Two Egypts
Ptah in primaeval water comes to Heliopolis and calls it Memphis
act of creation = Ptah desires himself eight other gods = Ogdoad
He (Ptah) gave birth to the gods,He made the towns,He established the nomes,He placed the gods in their shrines,He settled their offerings,He established their shrines,He made their bodies according to their wishes.Thus the gods entered into their bodies,Of every wood, every stone, every clay,Every thing that grows upon himIn which they came to be.Thus were gathered to him all the gods and their kas,Content, united with the Lord of the Two Lands.
Shabaka (712-698 B.C.), the first Ethiopian born pharaoh
On the Shabaka Stone: http://maat.sophiatopia.org/shabaka.htm
Hymn to Osiris
Coffin as Geb (Earth)
Lid as Nut (Sky)
Nut on a coffin lid
Painted papyrus depicting Shu, the air god, raising his daughter Nut, the sky goddess, above her brother Geb, the earth god, thus creating the world).
Dominant city of the Old Kingdom
Creation story of Atum
and the story of Osiris
The oldest surviving obelisk in the world, c.2000 B.C.
Creation via masturbation
Atum spit me [Shu] out
Compare Bierlein, pg. 51
Seven of nine members of the Heliopolitan Ennead, as represented in the judgment scene on the Papyrus of Ani. From right to left: Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut and sitting next to each other, Isis and Nephthys. Other members of the Ennead include Osiris, Seth, Horus and Thot.
Nun (watery chaos)
Shu (air) Tefnut (moisture)
Geb (Earth) Nut (sky)
Osiris, Isis, Seth, Nephthys
Development of the Ennead
Birth of Isis and Osiris
Death and Resurrection of Osiris
Osiris (Underworld) and Seth (Chaos)
Prominence of Horus (King of Egypt)
The Birth of Isis and Osiris
The Rivalry of Seth and Horus
Wanderings of isis
Isis Finds the Coffin of Osiris
The Reawakening of Osiris
Isis suckling the Horus-Childin the papyrus swamps.
Ritual of Osiris
Flooding of the Nile
Rebirth of Egypt
The Osiris Mysteries as portrayed in the Temple of Isis at Philae.(images After H. Rosellini, Monumenti dell'Egitto e della Nubia, Vol. III (Pisa, 1844), Pl. XXIII.)
Temple of Isis at Pompeii