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"THE BIG 4" MACROMOLECULES. Slides used and modified from:. gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20 BIG %20 4 %20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc. Before you can understand the topics in this unit there are some key vocabulary terms you need to know. Macromolecule Polymer Monomer.

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slide1

"THE BIG 4"

MACROMOLECULES

Slides used and modified from:

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide2

Before you can understand the topics in this unit there are some key vocabulary terms you need to know.

Macromolecule

Polymer

Monomer

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide3

What is a

MACROMOLECULE

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide4

What do these words mean?

Micro

MACRO

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

so what is a macromolecule
So What Is A Macromolecule?

You should be able to define it on your own !

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

next word
Next Word…..

Polymer

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide7

"Poly"

Polygons

Polyester

Means...

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide8

MANY

POLY means

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

what does mono mean

What does “Mono” mean?

1

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

a polymer
A Polymer

Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are….

If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

a polymer1
A Polymer

Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are….

If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train? If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers that make up the necklace?

now you and a buddy need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers
Now you and a buddy need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers.

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide13

Now we are ready to

begin our study of...

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide14

The Big Four

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

three out of the 4 types of biochemical macromolecules can be found on food nutrition labels
Three out of the 4 types of biochemical macromolecules can be found on food nutrition labels…

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

look at the label to the left 3 of the 4 macromolecules can be found in foods
Look at the label to the left. 3 of the 4 macromolecules can be found in foods.

The 3 biochemical molecules

found on a nutrition label are:

FAT

  • 1____________________
  • 2____________________
  • 3____________________

(0 grams in this product)

Carbohydrates

(13 grams in this product)

Protein

(9 grams in this product)

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide17

What is the fourth

type of biochemical

macromolecule?

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

the 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the nucleic acids
The 4th type of biochemical macromolecules are the NUCLEIC ACIDS

The types of Nucleic Acids

  • DNA (DeoxyriboNucleicAcid)
  • RNA (RiboNucleic Acid)

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

dna is short for d eoxyribo n ucleic a cid

DNA

“DNA” is short for DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
  • Now you know why they just call it DNA!

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

when studying these biochemical molecules we are interested in finding out
When studying these biochemical molecules, we are interested in finding out…..
  • what they do for living things.
  • what they generally look like.
  • what their monomers are.
  • and how they may help the body gain energy to sustain life.

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

keep the following in mind when studying this material
Keep the following in mind when studying this material:

Nucleic Acids What they look like

Carbohydrates What they do/Where are they

Lipids What are they made up of-

at the level of atoms

Proteins

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

let s begin with carbohydrates
LET’S BEGIN WITH CARBOHYDRATES

WHAT DO THEY DO?

  • They are the main source for the body to gain energy. They are our fuel!
  • They make up the cell wall in plants which allow them to grow tall, without this carbohydrate, a plant would be a mushy mess! This type of carbohydrate is called Cellulose.

THINK: CARBS= ENERGY and CELL WALLS

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

carbohydrates
CARBOHYDRATES

WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?

  • In plant foods- in the cell walls of plants --- in fruits, vegetables, peas, beans, SUGAR comes from a plant and so does FLOUR! (pasta, potatoes, bread, candy, cookies)
  • ---------------------------------------------------
  • In animal products- in MILK

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

carbohydrates1
CARBOHYDRATES

TYPES

THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES

Simple

Complex

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

simple sugars are carbohydrates made up of 1 or 2 monomers they also taste sweet

Simple Sugars are carbohydrates made up of 1 or 2 monomers. They also taste sweet.

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

simple sugars

COOKIES and CANDY

Simple Sugars

CAKES

FRUITS

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

complex carbohydrates what are they
Complex Carbohydrates…What are they?

Complex Cabohydrates are polymers made up of many monomers.

Most also taste starchy.

complex carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates

WHOLE GRAINS

FIBER

STARCHES

BREADS

PASTAS

VEGETABLES

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

carbohydrates2
CARBOHYDRATES

MADE UP OF...

Carbohydrates are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of carbohydrates is…

GLUCOSE

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

the shape of glucose is a hexagonal ring
The shape of Glucose is a hexagonal ring

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

carbohydrates3
CARBOHYDRATES

AT THE ATOM LEVEL

Each carbohydrate is made up of…

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

THINK: “CHO”

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

slide33

gbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.docgbn.glenbrook.k12.il.us/academics/science/Staff/cooper/THE%20BIG%204%20JOURNAL%20PACKET.doc

now onto proteins
NOW ONTO PROTEINS

WHAT DO THEY DO?

  • They are the major structural molecules in living things for growth and repair : muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, skin, nails…IN FACT ALL CELL MEMBRANES have protein in them
  • They make up antibodies in the immune system
  • They make up enzymes for helping chemical reactions
  • They makeup non-steriod hormones which

THINK: Proteins= membranes, enzymes, antibodies, non-steriod hormones, structural molecules, “MEANS”

more on proteins
MORE ON PROTEINS…

The following slides give you a little more in depth info on things that are made of proteins…

muscles ligaments tendons and bones
Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones

Without these particular structural proteins, we would look more like this….

microscope view of skin and nails
Microscope View ofSkin and Nails

This is skin

This is a nail

cell membrane
Cell Membrane

The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesn’t

leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a water balloon.

The cell membrane is made mostly of protein AND lipids.

slide42

Antibodies

Antibodies are part of the immune system. When something enters the body that isn’t supposed to be there, like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves onto it. When a white blood cell finds the invader covered with antibodies, it knows it doesn’t belong there and kills it.

slide43

Enzymes

Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. If you didn’t have enzymes in your stomach to speed up digestion, the food would rot in your stomach because it would take so long!

slide44

HORMONES

Hormones are chemicals made in glands that are in one place in the body and then put into the blood to be used in another.

These are where the

hormone producing

glands are located

in your body.

slide45
The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box. Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid hormone.

(The yellow stuff is

thyroid hormone)

Thyroid hormone regulates how fast your body uses energy.

If you have an over active thyroid, you use energy quickly and tend to be very thin and have a hard time putting on weight.

If you have an under active thyroid gland, you use energy very slowly and tend to carry more body fat and have a difficult time losing it.

Don’t be quick to think you have a thyroid problem if you are overweight, chances are it’s actually your eating and exercise habits!

proteins
PROTEINS

WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?

  • In plant foods- in the cell membranes
  • In animal products- in the cell membranes- in the muscles or living things- cows, chicken, fish…
proteins2
Proteins

Aside from the protein found in animal sources…protein can also be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts. (it just does not have as many amino acids)

proteins3
PROTEINS

MADE UP OF...

Proteins are made of long chains (polymers) made of monomers. All proteins are made of the monomer…

AMINO ACID

slide50

http://www.hcc.mnscu.edu/programs/dept/chem/V.27/amino_acid_structure_2.jpghttp://www.hcc.mnscu.edu/programs/dept/chem/V.27/amino_acid_structure_2.jpg

slide51

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c5/Amino_acids_2.png/483px-Amino_acids_2.pnghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c5/Amino_acids_2.png/483px-Amino_acids_2.png

proteins4
PROTEINS

AT THE ATOM LEVEL

Each protein is made up of…

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen,

Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur

THINK: “CHONS”

lipids are next
LIPIDS ARE NEXT

WHAT DO THEY DO?

  • They are a great source of STORED ENERGY so we have it in the future.
  • They INSULATE the body to maintain normal body temperature and they CUSHION the internal organs for protection.
  • They produce hormones for the body called STERIODS
  • They waterproof surfaces of animals,plants, and fruits- these are waxes!

THINK: Waterproof, insulate, steriods, energy, cushion… “WISE C”

lipips some interesting info
LIPIPS…Some interesting info

Waterproofing...

  • Fruits produce a waxy coating to keep from drying out.
  • The cells in a tulip make a wax which helps coat the leaves.
  • Ear wax traps dust, sand, and other foreign particles from going deeper into the ear and causing damage.
  • Beeswax- a structural material to hold honey in the hive
lipips some interesting info1
LIPIPS…Some interesting info

Steriods...

There are many different types of steroids. They are all lipids. Their functions vary. Some common steroids are:

SEX STEROIDS ANABOLIC STERIODS

CHOLESTEROL

They increase muscle

Like testosterone and estrogen

lipips some interesting info2
LIPIPS…Some interesting info

NATURAL STERIODS IN OUR BODY INCREASE MUSCLE GROWTH AND BONE DEVELOPMENT AND ARE GOOD. THE ILLEGAL ONES THAT ARE SYNTHETIC ARE BAD.

Some anabolic steroids are illegal

Steriods...

And can be dangerous and

very unhealthy

very common effects of illegal steroids
Very Common Effects of Illegal Steroids

If used when the person is still growing, they will be shorter as an adult, anabolic steroids will decrease bone growth.

Males will experience shrinking of the testicles, and with prolonged

use, the steroid will be turned into estrogen in the male body and it

will start to lay fatty tissue on the chest, otherwise known as breasts.

If genetically predisposed to becoming

bald, balding will happen more quickly.

If clean needles are not readily

available, there is a significantly higher

risk of getting AIDS.

Future risks of liver cancer & disease.

Enlarged heart which can lead to death

illegal steroid use in women
Illegal Steroid Use in Women

Some additional effects…

Breasts will decrease in size, the opposite of what happens to men.

The woman will start to grow facial hair, how quickly depends on her genetic makeup. If she discontinues use, the facial hair will still continue to grow.

If she is genetically predisposed

to balding, she will start to lose

her hair, just as if she was

genetically male.

Her voice will start to deepen, how quickly depends on her genetics. If she discontinues use, her voice will remain deep.

lipids
LIPIDS

WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?

  • In plants- in the seeds
  • ---------------------------------------------------
  • In animals- in adipose tissue, connective tissue, in animals
  • ---------------------------------------------------
  • Lipids make up the cell membrane of all cells.
lipids1
LIPIDS

OILS

BUTTER

MARGARINE

lipids2
LIPIDS

MADE UP OF...

Lipids are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common lipids found food from animal sources are…

TRIGLYCERIDES

the shape of a triglyceride is like the letter
The Shape of a triglyceride is like the letter

E

This is a triglyceride molecule

slide64

Saturated Fatty Acids have no double bonds and are saturated with hydrogen.Unsaturated Fatty Acids have double bonds.

www.agen.ufl.edu/~chyn/age2062/lect/lect_02/3_16.gif

cis and trans fatty acids
Cis and Trans Fatty Acids

http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/cis_trans.gif

cis vs trans shapes
Cis –vs-Trans Shapes

http://www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu/~sabedon/047cis.gif

lipids3
LIPIDS

AT THE ATOM LEVEL

Each carbohydrate is made up of…

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

THINK: “CHO”

oh no cho lipids like carbs
OH NO CHO! Lipids like Carbs?

You might have noticed that both carbohydrates and lipids have the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen.

“CHO”

A carbohydrate, has twice as many hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms.

EX: C6H12O6

(This is a carb= there are double the number of H compared to O)

On the other hand, lipids have a lot more than twice the amount hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms.

EX: C27H46O cholesterol

quick review questions
Quick Review Questions

Try to answer without looking back or using your notes :)

What Big 4 molecule stores energy for the future?

What are 4 effects of illegal steroid use in men and 3 effects

in women?

What are 4 things proteins do in your body?

What are the functions of lipids?

What is the main function of carbohydrates?

mini quiz examples of the big 4
Mini QuizExamples of the Big 4
  • Each of the following foods is high in one of the Big 4 organic molecules. Decide which one for each of the following foods.
    • Corn Oil
    • Lean Ham
    • Bread
    • Fish
nucleic acids
NUCLEIC ACIDS

TYPES

THERE ARE 2 TYPES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS

DNA

RNA

nucleic acids1
Nucleic Acids

WHAT DO THEY DO

  • DNA
    • Is our genetic material. Chromosomes are made of DNA.
    • Chromosomes contain the “recipes” to make proteins for your body.
  • RNA
    • Reads the DNA “protein recipes” and makes the proteins for your body.
nucleic acids2
NUCLEIC ACIDS

WHERE ARE THEY FOUND?

  • In plants- inside the nucleus of the cells
  • ---------------------------------------------------
  • In animals- inside the nucleus of each cell
  • ---------------------------------------------------
nucleic acids4
NUCLEIC ACIDS

MADE UP OF...

Nucleic Acids are chains (polymers) made of monomers. Nucleic acids are made up of

Nucleotide Chains

Which contain a sugar, phosphate and base.

the shape of a nucleic acid is
The shape of a nucleic acid is:

DNA is a

double helix

RNA is a

single strand

nucleic acids5
Nucleic Acids

AT THE ATOM LEVEL

Each nucleic acid is made up of…

Phosphorus, Nitrogen,

Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

THINK: “PONCH”

energy
ENERGY

Three of the BIG 4 provide us with energy through the food we eat:

energy1
ENERGY

Energy that is gained by consuming food is called a

CALORIE

energy that we gain by the consumption of food is measured in calories
Energy that we gain by the consumption of food is measured in Calories.

If you drink a glass of skim milk, you will get a gain of 90 Calories of energy for your body.

energy gained from carbohydrates
Energy Gained From Carbohydrates

Eating 1 gram of carbohydrate provides your body with 4 Calories.

slide83

Energy Gained from Protein

Eating 1 gram of protein provides your body with 4 Calories.

energy gained from lipids
Energy Gained from Lipids

Eating 1 gram of fat provides your body with 9 Calories.

Notice if you eat 1 gram of fat, you are gaining more than twice the amount of Calories than from a gram of carbohydrate or protein!

nucleic acids6
Nucleic acids

The nucleic acids in food are not considered a substance that the body uses to gain energy.

energy2
ENERGY

So…

TEST: Are you smart? If you eat a sandwhich with 46 grams of carbs and 24 grams of protein and 10 grams of fat, how much energy will you gain?

370

slide87

REVIEW QUESTIONS

  • What elements are found in all of the Big 4 molecules? Which of the Big 4 has different elements and what are they?
  • Since Carbohydrates and Lipids have the same elements in them, how can you tell the difference?
  • Would C26H32O5 be a carbohydrate or lipid?
  • Which molecule is in the shape of a hexagon?
  • Which molecule is in the shape of an E?
  • A polymer of amino acids makes what molecule?
which one of the following molecules is a lipid a carbohydrate

Which one of the following molecules is a lipid? A carbohydrate?

1.) C27H46O

2.) C12H24O12

Lipid

Carbohydrate

slide89

MORE REVIEW

  • What kind of carbohydrate gives you a quick burst of energy?
  • What kind of carbohydrate gives you long term energy?
  • You are stranded on a desert island and have found a box of food. Considering you have almost nothing to eat on the island, which of the following would be the best food to have in the box? WHY?
    • Crackers
    • Butter
    • Steak
  • How many Calories are found in 1 gram of protein?
  • How many Calories are in 1 gram of nucleic acid?
slide90

Final Review QuestionsPlease do not look back at the information in your handout until you have answered all of the following questions.

  • 1. What are the four main macromolecules of life?
  • 2. What is a polymer?
  • 3. What is a monomer?
  • 4. Carbohydrates are the body’s main source of ________________.
  • 5. Define in your own words:
  • Biochemical
  • Macromolecule
  • 6. Proteins are major structural molecules in living things. List 5 places or things in your body that contain a lot of protein.
  • 7. What are enzymes? What are they made of?
  • 8. What are hormones?
  • 9. What does your thyroid hormone do?
  • 10. Name three types of proteins.
  • 11. What are the functions of lipids?
  • 12. What elements are found in each of the Big 4 molecules?
  • 13. What does DNA do? RNA?
  • 14. How many Calories are found in 1 gram of each of the Big 4 molecules?
  • 15. What are 5 possible effects of illegal steroid use?
  • 16. What are 3 functions of lipids?
  • 17. What is the function of waxes?
  • 18. What are 2 ways simple sugars are different from complex carbohydrates?
  • 19. Where is DNA found?
  • 20. Is DNA and essential part of our diet? Why or why not?
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