Chapter 14 the atom
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Chapter 14: The Atom. The Big Idea: Atoms are the incredibly small building blocks of matter. An artist’s illustration of a scanning probe microscope over carbon atoms. How Do We Know That Matter Is Made of Tiny Particles?. The Elements. Atoms: make up all matter around us

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Chapter 14: The Atom

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Chapter 14 the atom

Chapter 14: The Atom

The Big Idea: Atoms are the incredibly small building blocks of matter.


An artist s illustration of a scanning probe microscope over carbon atoms

An artist’s illustration of a scanning probe microscope over carbon atoms.


How do we know that matter is made of tiny particles

How Do We Know That Matter Is Made of Tiny Particles?


The elements

The Elements

Atoms:

  • make up all matter around us

  • to date, 115 distinct kinds of atoms—

    90 found in nature, remainder synthesized

    Element

    any material consisting of only one type of atom


Atoms are ancient tiny and empty

Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty

Atoms are

  • ancient

    • origin of most atoms goes back to birth of universe

  • tiny

    • first and lightest atom making up 90% of the universe is hydrogen, H, followed by He

    • in perpetual motion

    • so small that when you inhale, you breathe atoms that were once part of every person who ever lived


Atoms are ancient tiny and empty1

Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty

Atoms are

  • tiny

    • can’t be seen with visible light—smaller than the wavelength of visible light

    • made up of subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, in a central nucleus surrounded by electrons

  • mostly empty space

    Elements heavier than hydrogen and much of the helium were produced in the interiors of stars.


Which of the following are incorrect statements about the atom

Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Which of the following are incorrect statements about the atom?

A.Atoms are smaller than the wavelength of visible light.

  • Atoms are mostly empty space, just as the solar system is mostly empty space.

  • Atoms are perpetually moving.

  • Atoms are manufactured in plants, and in humans during pregnancy.


Which of the following are incorrect statements about the atom1

Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Which of the following are incorrect statements about the atom?

A.Atoms are smaller than the wavelength of visible light.

  • Atoms are mostly empty space, just as the solar system is mostly empty space.

  • Atoms are perpetually moving.

  • Atoms are manufactured in plants, and in humans during pregnancy.


Chapter 14 the atom

If a baseball were the size of Earth, one of its atoms would be the size of a Ping-Pong ball.


Chapter 14 the atom

Atoms are smaller than the wavelengths of visible light.


Chapter 14 the atom

Einstein correctly noted that Brownian motion results from collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.


Protons and neutrons

Protons and Neutrons

Protons:

  • carry a positive charge—same quantity of charge as electrons

  • are about 1800 times as massive as an electron

  • have the same number of protons in the nucleus as electrons surrounding the nucleus of an electrically neutral atom


Protons and neutrons1

Protons and Neutrons

Electrons:

  • are identical

  • repel electrons of neighboring atoms

  • have electrical repulsion that prevents atomic closeness


Protons and neutrons2

Protons and Neutrons

Atomic number

is the number of protons in each element listed in the periodic table.

Neutrons:

  • accompany protons in the nucleus

  • have about the same mass as protons but no charge, so are electrically neutral

    Both protons and neutrons are nucleons.


Isotopes and atomic mass

Isotopes and Atomic Mass

Isotopes:

  • refers to atoms of the same element that contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus

  • identified by mass number, which is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

  • differ only in mass and not by electric charge; therefore, isotopes share many characteristics

    Total number of neutrons

    in isotope = mass number – atomic number


Isotopes and atomic mass1

Isotopes and Atomic Mass

Atomic mass:

  • total mass of the atom(s) [protons, neutrons, and electrons]

  • listed in periodic table as atomic mass unit

    One atomic mass unit is equal to

    1.661  10–24 gram or 1.661  10–27 kg


The atomic number of an element matches the number of

Isotopes and Atomic Mass

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The atomic number of an element matches the number of

A.protons in the nucleus of an atom.

  • electrons in a neutral atom.

  • both of the above.

  • none of the above.


The atomic number of an element matches the number of1

Isotopes and Atomic Mass

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The atomic number of an element matches the number of

A.protons in the nucleus of an atom.

  • electrons in a neutral atom.

  • both of the above.

  • none of the above.

    Comment:

    When the atomic number doesn’t match the number of electrons, the atom is an ion.


A nucleus with an atomic number of 44 and a mass number of 100 must have

Isotopes and Atomic Mass

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A nucleus with an atomic number of 44 and a mass number of 100 must have

A.44 neutrons.

  • 56 neutrons.

  • 100 neutrons.

  • none of the above.


A nucleus with an atomic number of 44 and a mass number of 100 must have1

Isotopes and Atomic Mass

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A nucleus with an atomic number of 44 and a mass number of 100 must have

A.44 neutrons.

  • 56 neutrons.

  • 100 neutrons.

  • none of the above.

    Comment:

    Be sure to distinguish between neutron and nucleon. Of the

    100 nucleons in the nucleus, 56 are neutrons. A neutron is a nucleon, as is a proton.


The periodic table

The Periodic Table

Periodic table:

  • list of all the chemical elements

  • designates each element by its atomic symbol—first letter is capitalized


Chapter 14 the atom

Linus Pauling (1901-1994) received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2X!


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