Chapter 14 the atom
Download
1 / 46

Chapter 14: The Atom - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 95 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 14: The Atom. The Big Idea: Atoms are the incredibly small building blocks of matter. An artist’s illustration of a scanning probe microscope over carbon atoms. How Do We Know That Matter Is Made of Tiny Particles?. The Elements. Atoms: make up all matter around us

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 14: The Atom' - allan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 14 the atom

Chapter 14: The Atom

The Big Idea: Atoms are the incredibly small building blocks of matter.




The elements
The Elements over carbon atoms.

Atoms:

  • make up all matter around us

  • to date, 115 distinct kinds of atoms—

    90 found in nature, remainder synthesized

    Element

    any material consisting of only one type of atom


Atoms are ancient tiny and empty
Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty over carbon atoms.

Atoms are

  • ancient

    • origin of most atoms goes back to birth of universe

  • tiny

    • first and lightest atom making up 90% of the universe is hydrogen, H, followed by He

    • in perpetual motion

    • so small that when you inhale, you breathe atoms that were once part of every person who ever lived


Atoms are ancient tiny and empty1
Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty over carbon atoms.

Atoms are

  • tiny

    • can’t be seen with visible light—smaller than the wavelength of visible light

    • made up of subatomic particles, protons and neutrons, in a central nucleus surrounded by electrons

  • mostly empty space

    Elements heavier than hydrogen and much of the helium were produced in the interiors of stars.


Which of the following are incorrect statements about the atom

Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty over carbon atoms.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

Which of the following are incorrect statements about the atom?

A. Atoms are smaller than the wavelength of visible light.

  • Atoms are mostly empty space, just as the solar system is mostly empty space.

  • Atoms are perpetually moving.

  • Atoms are manufactured in plants, and in humans during pregnancy.


Which of the following are incorrect statements about the atom1

Atoms Are Ancient, Tiny, and Empty over carbon atoms.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

Which of the following are incorrect statements about the atom?

A. Atoms are smaller than the wavelength of visible light.

  • Atoms are mostly empty space, just as the solar system is mostly empty space.

  • Atoms are perpetually moving.

  • Atoms are manufactured in plants, and in humans during pregnancy.




Einstein correctly noted that Brownian motion results from collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.


Protons and neutrons
Protons and Neutrons collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

Protons:

  • carry a positive charge—same quantity of charge as electrons

  • are about 1800 times as massive as an electron

  • have the same number of protons in the nucleus as electrons surrounding the nucleus of an electrically neutral atom


Protons and neutrons1
Protons and Neutrons collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

Electrons:

  • are identical

  • repel electrons of neighboring atoms

  • have electrical repulsion that prevents atomic closeness


Protons and neutrons2
Protons and Neutrons collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

Atomic number

is the number of protons in each element listed in the periodic table.

Neutrons:

  • accompany protons in the nucleus

  • have about the same mass as protons but no charge, so are electrically neutral

    Both protons and neutrons are nucleons.


Isotopes and atomic mass
Isotopes and Atomic Mass collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

Isotopes:

  • refers to atoms of the same element that contain the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus

  • identified by mass number, which is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

  • differ only in mass and not by electric charge; therefore, isotopes share many characteristics

    Total number of neutrons

    in isotope = mass number – atomic number


Isotopes and atomic mass1
Isotopes and Atomic Mass collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

Atomic mass:

  • total mass of the atom(s) [protons, neutrons, and electrons]

  • listed in periodic table as atomic mass unit

    One atomic mass unit is equal to

    1.661  10–24 gram or 1.661  10–27 kg


The atomic number of an element matches the number of

Isotopes and Atomic Mass collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

The atomic number of an element matches the number of

A. protons in the nucleus of an atom.

  • electrons in a neutral atom.

  • both of the above.

  • none of the above.


The atomic number of an element matches the number of1

Isotopes and Atomic Mass collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

The atomic number of an element matches the number of

A. protons in the nucleus of an atom.

  • electrons in a neutral atom.

  • both of the above.

  • none of the above.

    Comment:

    When the atomic number doesn’t match the number of electrons, the atom is an ion.


A nucleus with an atomic number of 44 and a mass number of 100 must have

Isotopes and Atomic Mass collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

CHECK YOUR NEIGHBOR

A nucleus with an atomic number of 44 and a mass number of 100 must have

A. 44 neutrons.

  • 56 neutrons.

  • 100 neutrons.

  • none of the above.


A nucleus with an atomic number of 44 and a mass number of 100 must have1

Isotopes and Atomic Mass collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

CHECK YOUR ANSWER

A nucleus with an atomic number of 44 and a mass number of 100 must have

A. 44 neutrons.

  • 56 neutrons.

  • 100 neutrons.

  • none of the above.

    Comment:

    Be sure to distinguish between neutron and nucleon. Of the

    100 nucleons in the nucleus, 56 are neutrons. A neutron is a nucleon, as is a proton.


The periodic table
The Periodic Table collisions between invisible atoms and visible particles.

Periodic table:

  • list of all the chemical elements

  • designates each element by its atomic symbol—first letter is capitalized



ad